2019 Vol. 10, No. 3
The Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC), in western Garhwal, Uttarakhand are located in a regionalscale intracontinental ductile shear zone (15-20 km wide) bounded by the Main Central Thrust at the base, and the South Tibetan Detachment System at the top. The migmatite zone in the centre has the highest grade of metamorphism in the NW Himalayas and show evidence of flowage. Zircons extracted from samples of metasediment, migmatite, biotite granite and in situ partial melt (tourmaline-bearing leucogranite) along the Bhagirathi Valley, preserve U-Pb isotopic evidence of magmatic history, magma source and effects of the Himalayan orogeny in the region. Three distinct periods of zircon growth in the leucogranite record the episodic influx of magma between 46 Ma and 20 Ma indicating a time span of more than 25 Ma between the onset of fluid-fluxed partial melting in the mid-crustal intracontinental shear zone and the emplacement of the magma into the upper crust in a post-collisional extensional setting. Metamorphic zircon growth was initiated about 46 Ma, when the partial melts were generated as the migmatite zone was exhumed.
Whole rock major and trace element compositions of seven eclogites from the Tso Morari ultra-high pressure (UHP) complex, Ladakh were determined with the aim of constraining the protolith origins of the subducted crust. The eclogites have major element compositions corresponding to sub-alkaline basalts. Trace element characteristics of the samples show enrichment in LILE's over HFSEs (Rb, Th, K except Ba) with LREE enrichments ((La/Lu)n = 1.28-5.96). Absence of Eu anomaly on the Primitive Mantle normalized diagram suggests the absence of plagioclase fractionation. Positive correlation between Mg# with Ni and Cr suggests olivine fractionation of mantle melts. Narrow range of (La/Yb)n (2.1-9.4) and Ce/Yb (6.2-16.2) along with Ti/Y (435-735) ratios calculated for the Tso Morari samples is consistent with generation of melts by partial melting of a garnet free mantle source within the spinel peridotite field. Ternary diagrams (viz. Ti-Zr-Y and Nb-Zr-Y) using immobile and incompatible elements show that the samples range from depleted to enriched and span from within plate basalts (WPB) to enriched MORB (E-MORB) indicating that the eclogite protoliths originated from basaltic magmas. Primitive Mantle normalized multi element plots showing significant Th and LREE enrichment marked by negative Nb anomalies are characteristic of continental flood basalts. Positive Pb, negative Nb, high Th/Ta, a narrow range of Nb/La and the observed wide variation for Ti/Y indicate that the Tso Morari samples have undergone some level of crustal contamination. Observed geochemical characteristics of the Tso Morari samples indicate tholeiitic compositions originated from enriched MORB (E-MORB) type magmas which underwent a limited magmatic evolution through the process of fractional crystallization and probably more by crustal contamination. Observed geochemical similarities (viz. Zr, Nb, La/Yb, La/Gd, La/Nb, Th/Ta ratios and REE) between Tso Morari eclogites and the Group I Panjal Traps make the trap basalt the most likely protoliths for the Tso Morari eclogites.
Present-day along-strike heterogeneities within the Himalayan orogen are seen at many scales, from variations within the deep architecture of the lithospheric mantle, to differences in geomorphologic surface processes. Here, we present an internally consistent petrochronologic dataset from the Himalayan metamorphic core (HMC), in order to document and investigate the causes of along-strike variations in its Oligocene-Miocene tectonic history. Laser ablation split-stream analysis was used to date and characterise the geochemistry of titanite from 47 calc-silicate rocks across > 2000 km along the Himalaya. This combined U-Pb-REE-Zr single mineral dataset circumvents uncertainties associated with interpretations based on data compilations from different studies, mineral systems and laboratories, and allows for direct along-strike comparisons in the timing of metamorphic processes. Titanite dates range from ~30 Ma to 12 Ma, recording (re-)crystallization between 625 ℃ and 815 ℃. Titanite T-t data overlap with previously published P-T-t paths from interleaved peltic rocks, demonstrating the usefulness of titanite petrochronology for recording the metamorphic history in lithologies not traditionally used for thermobarometry. Overall, the data indicate a broad eastward-younging trend along the orogen. Disparities in the duration and timing of metamorphism within the HMC are best explained by alongstrike variations in the position of ramps on the basal detachment controlling a two-stage process of preferential ductile accretion at depth followed by the formation of later upper-crust brittle duplexes. These processes, coupled with variable erosion, resulted in the asymmetric exhumation of a younger, thicker crystalline core in the eastern Himalaya.
New metamorphic petrology and geochronology from the Loe Sar dome in the Swat region of northern Pakistan place refined constraints on the pressure, temperature and timing of metamorphism and deformation in that part of the Himalayan orogen. Thermodynamic modelling and monazite petrochronology indicate that metamorphism in the area followed a prograde evolution from ~525±25 ℃ and 6±0.5 kbar to ~610±25 ℃ and 9±0.5 kbar, between ca. 39 Ma and 28 Ma. Partitioning of heavy rare earth elements between garnet rims and 30-28 Ma monazite are interpreted to indicate coeval crystallization at peak conditions. Microtextural relationships indicate that garnet rim growth post-dated the development of the main foliation in the area. The regional foliation is folded about large-scale N-S trending fold axes and overprinting E-W trending folds to form km-scale domal culminations. The textural relationships observed indicate that final dome development must be younger than the 30-28 Ma monazite that grew with garnet rims post-regional foliation development, but pre-doming-related deformation. This new timing constraint helps resolve discrepancy between previous interpretations, which have alternately suggested that N-S trending regional folds must be either pre- or post-early Oligocene. Finally, when combined with existing hornblende and white mica cooling ages, these new data indicate that the study area was exhumed rapidly following peak metamorphism.
The metamorphic core of the Himalaya is composed of Indian cratonic rocks with two distinct crustal affinities that are defined by radiogenic isotopic geochemistry and detrital zircon age spectra. One is derived predominantly from the Paleoproterozoic and Archean rocks of the Indian cratonic interior and is either represented as metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) or as slices of the distal cratonic margin. The other is the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) whose provenance is less clear and has an enigmatic affinity. Here we present new detrital zircon Hf analyses from LHS and GHS samples spanning over 1000 km along the orogen that respectively show a striking similarity in age spectra and Hf isotope ratios. Within the GHS, the zircon age populations at 2800-2500 Ma, 1800 Ma, 1000 Ma and 500 Ma can be ascribed to various Gondwanan source regions; however, a pervasive and dominant Tonianage population (~860-800 Ma) with a variably enriched radiogenic Hf isotope signature (εHf = 10 to-20) has not been identified from Gondwana or peripheral accreted terranes. We suggest this detrital zircon age population was derived from a crustal province that was subsequently removed by tectonic erosion. Substantial geologic evidence exists from previous studies across the Himalaya supporting the Cambro-Ordovician Kurgiakh Orogeny. We propose the tectonic removal of Tonian lithosphere occurred prior to or during this Cambro-Ordovician episode of orogenesis in a similar scenario as is seen in the modern Andean and Indonesian orogenies, wherein tectonic processes have removed significant portions of the continental lithosphere in a relatively short amount of time. This model described herein of the pre-Himalayan northern margin of Greater India highlights the paucity of the geologic record associated with the growth of continental crust. Although the continental crust is the archive of Earth history, it is vital to recognize the ways in which preservation bias and destruction of continental crust informs geologic models.
Orthogneiss within the Paleoproterozoic strata of Lesser Himalayan sequence across the Himalaya has been variably linked to development in a continental arc setting, Indian basement, or a continental rift. New whole rock and trace element geochemical data and U/Pb zircon geochronology indicate that the granitoid protoliths to these rocks were derived from upper crustal sources in the Paleoproterozoic and have within-plate, A-type affinities. This is consistent with their generation in a rifted margin and is compatible with paleogeographic reconstructions that indicate an open boundary for present-day northern India in the Paleoproterozoic.
The Gongga Shan batholith is a complex granitoid batholith on the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau with a long history of magmatism spanning from the Triassic to the Pliocene. Late MioceneePliocene units are the youngest exposed crustal melts within the entire Asian plate of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we present in-situ zircon Hf isotope constraints on their magmatic source, to aid the understanding of how these young melts were formed and how they were exhumed to the surface. Hf isotope signatures of Eocene to Pliocene zircon rims (εHf(t) =-4 to +4), interpreted to have grown during localised crustal melting, are indicative of melting of a Neoproterozoic source region, equivalent to the nearby exposed Kangding Complex. Therefore, we suggest that Neoproterozoic crust underlies this region of the Songpan -Ganze terrane, and sourced the intrusive granites that form the Gongga Shan batholith. Localised young melting of Neoproterozoic lower or middle crust requires localised melt-fertile lithologies. We suggest that such melts may be equivalent to seismic and magnetotelluric low-velocity and high-conductivity zones or “bright spots” imaged across much of the Tibetan Plateau. The lack of widespread exposed melts this age is due either to the lack of melt-fertile rocks in the middle crust, the very low erosion level of the Tibetan plateau, or to a lack of mechanism for exhuming such melts. For Gongga Shan, where some melting is younger than nearby thermochronological ages of low temperature cooling, the exact process and timing of exhumation remains enigmatic, but their location away from the Xianshuihe fault precludes the fault acting as a conduit for the young melts. We suggest that underthrusting of dry granulites of the lower Indian crust (Archaean shield) this far northeast is a plausible mechanism to explain the uplift and exhumation of the eastern Tibetan Plateau.
The Cretaceous-Eocene Xigaze forearc basin is a crucial data archive for understanding the tectonic history of the Asian continental margin prior to and following collision with India during the early Cenozoic Era. This study reports apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronologic data from fourteen samples from Albian-Ypresian Xigaze forearc strata to determine the degree and timing of heating (burial) and subsequent cooling (exhumation) of two localities along the Yarlung suture zone (YSZ) near the towns of Saga and Lazi. Thirty-seven individual zircon He ages range from 31.5±0.8 Ma to 6.06±0.18 Ma, with the majority of grains yielding ages between 30 Ma and 10 Ma. Twenty apatite He ages range from 12.7±0.5 Ma to 3.9±0.3 Ma, with the majority of grains yielding ages between 9 Ma and 4 Ma. These ages suggest that the Xigaze forearc basin was heated to 140-200 ℃ prior to cooling in OligoceneeMiocene time. Thermal modeling supports this interpretation and shows that the samples were buried to maximum temperatures of ~140-200 ℃ by 35-21 Ma, immediately followed by the onset of exhumation. The zircon He and apatite He dataset and thermal modeling results indicate rapid exhumation from ~21 Ma to 15 Ma, and at ~4 Ma. The 21-15 Ma thermochronometric signal appears to be regionally extensive, affecting all the lithotectonic units of the YSZ, and coincides with movement along the north-vergent Great Counter Thrust system. Thrusting, coupled with enhanced erosion possibly related to the paleo-Yarlung River, likely drove Early Miocene cooling of the Xigaze forearc basin. In contrast, the younger phase of rapid exhumation at ~4 Ma was likely driven by enhanced rock uplift in the footwall of north-striking rifts that cross-cut the YSZ.
During subduction, continental margins experience shortening along with inversion of extensional sedimentary basins. Here we explore a tectonic scenario for the inversion of two-phase extensional basin systems, where the Early-Middle Jurassic intra-arc volcano-sedimentary Oseosan Volcanic Complex was developed on top of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic post-collisional sequences, namely the Chungnam Basin. The basin shortening was accommodated mostly by contractional faults and related folds. In the basement, regional high-angle reverse faults as well as low-angle thrusts accommodate the overall shortening, and are compatible with those preserved in the cover. This suggests that their spatial and temporal development is strongly dependent on the initial basin geometry and inherited structures. Changes in transport direction observed along the basement-sedimentary cover interface is a characteristic structural feature, reflecting sequential kinematic evolution during basin inversion. Propagation of basement faults also enhanced shortening of the overlying sedimentary cover sequences. We constrain timing of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (ca. 158-110 Ma) inversion from altered K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages in stacked thrust sheets and K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges, along with previously reported geochronological data from the area. This “non-magmatic phase” of the Daebo Orogeny is contemporaneous with the timing of magmatic quiescence across the Korean Peninsula. We propose the role of flat/low-angle subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate for the development of the “Laramide-style” basement-involved orogenic event along East Asian continental margin.
In Brazil, intense coal exploitation activities have led to environmental deterioration, including soil mortification, water contamination, loss of ecosystem, and atmospheric contamination. In addition, considerable quantities of sulfur-rich residues are left behind in the mining area; these residues pose grave environmental issues as they undergo sulfide oxidation reactions. When sulfur oxides come in contact with water, extreme acid leachate is produced with great proportions of sulfate, and hazardous elements (HEs), which are identified as coal drainage (CMD). CMD is an environmental pollution challenge, particularly in countries with historic or active coal mines. To prevent CMD formation or its migration, the source must be controlled; however, this may not be feasible at many locations. In such scenarios, the mine water should be collected, treated, and discharged. In this study, data from 2005 to 2010 was gathered on the geochemistry of 11 CMD discharges from ten different mines. There are several concerns and questions on the formation of nanominerals in mine acid drainage and on their reactions and interfaces. The detailed mineralogical and geochemical data presented in this paper were derived from previous studies on the coal mine areas in Brazil. Oxyhydroxides, sulfates, and nanoparticles in these areas possibly go through structural transformations depending on their size and formation conditions. The geochemistry of Fe-precipitates (such as jarosite, goethite, and hematite) existent in the CMD-generating coal areas and those that could be considered as a potential source of hazardous elements (HEs) (e.g., Cr) were also studied because these precipitates are relatively stable in extremely low pH conditions. To simplify and improve poorly ordered iron, strontium, and aluminum phase characterization, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sequential extraction (SE) studies were executed on a set CMD samples from the Brazilian mines. This study aimed to investigate the role of both nanomineral and amorphous phase distribution throughout the reactive coal cleaning rejects profile and HEs removal from the water mine to provide holistic insights on the ecological risks posed by HEs, nanominerals, amorphous phases, and to assess sediments in complex environments such as estuaries.
Mikbi intrusion (MI) is a part of the Neoproterozoic Nubian Shield located along the NE-SW trending major fracture zones prevailing southern Eastern Desert of Egypt. In this study, we present for the first time detailed mineralogical and bulk-rock geochemical data to infer some constraints on the parental magma genesis and to understand the tectonic processes contributed to MI formation. Lithologically, it is composed of fresh peridotite, clinopyroxenite, hornblendite, anorthosite, gabbronorite, pyroxene amphibole gabbro, amphibole gabbro and diorite. All rocks have low Th/La ratios (mostly <0.2) and lack positive Zr and Th anomalies excluding significant crustal contamination. They show very low concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf together with sub-chondritic ratios of Nb/Ta (2-15) and Zr/Hf (19-35), suggesting that their mantle source was depleted by earlier melting extraction event. The oxygen fugacity (logf O2) estimated from diorite biotite is around the nickel-nickel oxide buffer (NNO) indicating crystallization from a relatively oxidized magma. Amphiboles in the studied mafic-ultramafic rocks indicate relative oxygen fugacity (i.e. △NNO; nickel-nickel oxide) of 0.28-3 and were in equilibrium mostly with 3.77-8.24 wt.% H2Omelt (i.e. water content in the melt), consistent with the typical values of subduction-related magmas. Moreover, pressure estimates (0.53-6.79 kbar) indicate polybaric crystallization and suggest that the magma chamber(s) was located at relatively shallow crustal levels. The enrichment in LILE (e.g., Cs, Ba, K and Sr) and the depletion in HFSE (e.g., Th and Nb) relative to primitive mantle are consistent with island arc signature. The olivine, pyroxene and amphibole compositions also reflect arc affinity. These inferences suggest that their primary magma was derived from partial melting of a mantle source that formerly metasomatized in a subduction zone setting. Clinopyroxene and bulkrock data are consistent with orogenic tholeiitic affinity. Consequently, the mineral and bulk-rock chemistry strongly indicate crystallization from hydrous tholeiitic magma. Moreover, their trace element patterns are subparallel indicating that the various rock types possibly result from differentiation of the same primary magma. These petrological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics show that the MI is a typical Alaskan-type complex.
Advances in photogrammetry have eased the acquisition of high-resolution digital information from outcrops, enabling faster, non-destructive data capturing and improved reservoir modeling. Geocellular models for flow dynamics with in the virtual outcrop in siliciclastic deposits at different sets of sandstone facies architecture remain, however, a challenge. Digital maps of bedding, lithological contrast, spatial-temporal variations of bedding and permeability characteristics make it more easy to understand flow tortuosity in a particular architecture. An ability to precisely model these properties can improve reservoir characterization and flow modeling at different scales. Here we demonstrate the construction of realistic 2D sandstone facies based models for a pragmatic simulation of flow dynamics using a combination of digital point clouds dataset acquired from LiDAR and field investigation of the Sandakan Formation, Sabah, Borneo. Additionally, we present methods for enhancing the accuracy of outcrop digital datasets for producing high resolution flow simulation. A well-exposed outcrop from the Sandakan Formation, Sabah, northwest Borneo having a lateral extent of 750 m was chosen in order to implement our research approach. Sandstone facies and its connectivity are well constrained by outcrop observations, data from air-permeability measurements, bilinear interpolation of permeability, grid construction and water vector analysis for flow dynamics. These proportions were then enumerated in terms of static digital outcrop model (DOM) and facies model based on sandstone facies bedding characteristics. Flow simulation of water vector analysis through each of the four sandstone facies types show persistent spatial correlation of permeability that align with either cross-bedded orientation or straight with more dispersion high quality sandstone (porosity 21.25%-41.2% and permeability 1265.20-5986.25 mD) and moderate quality sandstone (porosity 10.44%-28.75% and permeability 21.44-1023.33 mD). Whereas, in more heterolithic sandstone (wavy- to flaser-bedded and bioturbated sandstone), lateral variations in permeability show spatially non-correlated patterns over centimeters to tens of meters with mostly of low quality sandstone (porosity 3.4%-12.31% and permeability < 1 mD to 3.21 mD). These variations reflect the lateral juxtaposition in flow dynamics. It has also been resulted that the vertical connectivity and heterogeneities in terms of flow are mostly pragmatic due to the interconnected sandstone rather than the quality of sandstone.
The West Kunlun orogenic belt (WKOB) along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is important for understanding the evolution of the Proto- and Paleo-Tethys oceans. Previous investigations have focused on the igneous rocks and ophiolites distributed mostly along the Xinjiang-Tibet road and the China-Pakistan road, and have constructed a preliminary tectonic model for this orogenic belt. However, few studies have focused on the so-called Precambrian basement in this area. As a result, the tectonic affinity of the individual terranes of the WKOB and their detailed evolution process are uncertain. Here we report new field observations, zircon and monazite U-Pb ages of the “Precambrian basement” of the South Kunlun terrane (SKT) and the Tianshuihai terrane (TSHT), two major terranes in the WKOB. Based on new zircon U-Pb age data, the amphibolite-facies metamorphosed volcanosedimentary sequence within SKT was deposited during the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (600 -500 Ma), and the flysch-affinity Tianshuihai Group, as the basement of the TSHT, was deposited during the late Neoproterozoic rather than Mesoproterozoic. The rock association of the volcano-sedimentary sequence within SKT suggests a large early Paleozoic accretionary wedge formed by the long-term lowangle southward subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean between Tarim and TSHT. The amphibolitefacies metamorphism in SKT occurred at ca. 440 Ma. This ca. 440 Ma metamorphism is genetically related to the closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean between Tarim and the Tianshuihai terrane, which led to the assembly of Tarim to Eastern Gondwana and the final formation of the Gondwana. Since the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic, the northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean along the HongshihuQiaoertianshan belt produced the voluminous early Mesozoic arc-signature granites along the southern part of NKT-TSHT. The Paleo-Tethys ocean between TSHT and Karakorum closed at ca. 200 Ma, as demonstrated by the monazite age of the paragneiss in the Kangxiwa Group. Our study does not favor the existence of a Precambrian basement in SKT.
Detailed global plate motion models that provide a continuous description of plate boundaries through time are an effective tool for exploring processes both at and below the Earth's surface. A new generation of numerical models of mantle dynamics pre- and post-Pangea timeframes requires global kinematic descriptions with full plate reconstructions extending into the Paleozoic (410 Ma). Current plate models that cover Paleozoic times are characterised by large plate speeds and trench migration rates because they assume that lowermost mantle structures are rigid and fixed through time. When used as a surface boundary constraint in geodynamic models, these plate reconstructions do not accurately reproduce the present-day structure of the lowermost mantle. Building upon previous work, we present a global plate motion model with continuously closing plate boundaries ranging from the early Devonian at 410 Ma to present day.
We analyse the model in terms of surface kinematics and predicted lower mantle structure. The magnitude of global plate speeds has been greatly reduced in our reconstruction by modifying the evolution of the synthetic Panthalassa oceanic plates, implementing a Paleozoic reference frame independent of any geodynamic assumptions, and implementing revised models for the Paleozoic evolution of North and South China and the closure of the Rheic Ocean. Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) RMS plate speeds are on average ~8 cm/yr, which is comparable to Mesozoic-Cenozoic rates of ~6 cm/yr on average. Paleozoic global median values of trench migration trend from higher speeds (~2.5 cm/yr) in the late Devonian to rates closer to 0 cm/yr at the end of the Permian (~250 Ma), and during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic (250-0 Ma) generally cluster tightly around ~1.1 cm/yr. Plate motions are best constrained over the past 130 Myr and calculations of global trench convergence rates over this period indicate median rates range between 3.2 cm/yr and 12.4 cm/yr with a present day median rate estimated at ~5 cm/yr. For Paleozoic times (410-251 Ma) our model results in median convergence rates largely ~5 cm/yr. Globally, ~90% of subduction zones modelled in our reconstruction are determined to be in a convergent regime for the period of 120-0 Ma. Over the full span of the model, from 410 Ma to 0 Ma, ~93% of subduction zones are calculated to be convergent, and at least 85% of subduction zones are converging for 97% of modelled times. Our changes improve global plate and trench kinematics since the late Paleozoic and our reconstructions of the lowermost mantle structure challenge the proposed fixity of lower mantle structures, suggesting that the eastern margin of the African LLSVP margin has moved by as much as ~1450 km since late Permian times (260 Ma). The model of the plate-mantle system we present suggests that during the Permian Period, South China was proximal to the eastern margin of the African LLSVP and not the western margin of the Pacific LLSVP as previous thought.
Studies on differentiation of ensimatic arc units from melange units in the Northern Anatolian Ophiolitic Belt (NAOB) are very rare. The study area represents the southern edge of the central part of the NAOB. The aim of the study is to distinguish the main units of NAOB and to define the geotectonic setting of the Darmik Ensimatic Arc Association (DEAA). To study the ensimatic arc units as an independent tectonic unit is important and facilitates understanding of the geological evolution of the NAOB. During field studies, the contact relationships within the Darmik Ensimatic Arc Association (DEAA) units and also with other tectonic units were reviewed. Then, paleontological, geochronological, petrological and also geochemical properties of the DEAA have been defined. In the present study, ensimatic arc units have been distinguished from ophiolitic association for the first time, in the region. As a result of the study, the DEAA is divided into two levels and lower level named as the Kartal unit and upper level named as the İzibüyük unit. In the Kartal unit, basaltic and andesitic lavas with their equivalent pyroclastic rock units are dominant. Radiolarite and mudstones interbedded within the Kartal unit of DEAA have Turonian and Santonian age. In addition, the age of basalt samples of DEAA are 98.7±2.4 Ma, defined using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The İzibüyük unit of DEAA comprises conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, mudstone, clayey limestone, micritic limestone with volcanic interbeds and also calciturbidites. Santonian -Maastrichtian ages were obtained from this unit of the DEAA. In conclusion, the age of DEAA is widely accepted as Late Cretaceous. After the evaluation of the analysis, the volcanics of the DEAA originated from calcalkaline-basalts, which reflect ensimatic arc magmatism.
Extensional and compressional structures are globally abundant on Mars. Distribution of these structures and their ages constrain the crustal stress state and tectonic evolution of the planet. Here in this paper, we report on our investigation over the distribution of the tectonic structures and timings of the associated stress fields from the Noachis-Sabaea region. Thereafter, we hypothesize possible origins in relation to the internal/external processes through detailed morphostructural mapping. In doing so, we have extracted the absolute model ages of these linear tectonic structures using crater size-frequency distribution measurements, buffered crater counting in particular. The estimated ages indicate that the tectonic structures are younger than the mega impacts events (especially Hellas) and instead they reveal two dominant phases of interior dynamics prevailing on the southern highlands, firstly the extensional phase terminating around 3.8 Ga forming grabens and then compressional phase around 3.5-3.6 Ga producing wrinkle ridges and lobate scarps. These derived absolute model ages of the grabens exhibit the age ca.100 Ma younger than the previously documented end of the global extensional phase. The following compressional activity corresponds to the peak of global contraction period in Early Hesperian. Therefore, we conclude that the planet wide heat loss mechanism, involving crustal stretching coupled with gravitationally driven relaxation (i.e., lithospheric mobility) resulted in the extensional structures around Late Noachian (around 3.8 Ga). Lately cooling related global contraction generated compressional stress ensuing shortening of the upper crust of the southern highlands at the Early Hesperian period (around 3.5-3.6 Ga).
The early Paleogene is critical for understanding global biodiversity patterns in modern ecosystems. During this interval, Southern Hemisphere continents were largely characterized by isolation and faunal endemism following the breakup of Gondwana. Africa has been proposed as an important source area for the origin of several marine vertebrate groups but its Paleogene record is poorly sampled, especially from sub-Saharan Africa. To document the early Paleogene marine ecosystems of Central Africa, we revised the stratigraphic context of sedimentary deposits from three fossil-rich vertebrate localities: the Landana section in the Cabinda exclave (Angola), and the Manzadi and Bololo localities in western Democratic Republic of Congo. We provide more refined age constraints for these three localities based on invertebrate and vertebrate faunas, foraminiferal and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages, and carbon isotope records. We find an almost complete absence of Danian-aged rocks in the Landana section, contrary to prevailing interpretations over the last half a century (only the layer 1, at the base of the section, seems to be Danian). Refining the age of these Paleocene layers is crucial for analyzing fish evolution in a global framework, with implications for the early appearance of Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) and Tetraodontiformes (puffer fishes). The combination of vertebrate fossil records from Manzadi and Landana sections suggests important environmental changes around the K/Pg transition characterized by an important modification of the ichthyofauna. A small faunal shift may have occurred during the Selandian. More dramatic is the distinct decrease in overall richness that lasts from the Selandian to the Ypresian. The Lutetian of West Central Africa is characterized by the first appearance of numerous cartilaginous and bony fishes. Our analysis of the ichthyofauna moreover indicates two periods of faunal exchanges: one during the Paleocene, where Central Africa appears to have been a source for the European marine fauna, and another during the Eocene when Europe was the source of the Central Africa fauna. These data indicate that Central Africa has had connections with the Tethyian realm.
Water resources in New Zealand are not evenly distributed across the country which makes it difficult to adequately allocate the use of water resources in every basin. Groundwater is a fundamental water resource in New Zealand for agricultural, industrial and domestic use. Detailed knowledge regarding groundwater recharge potential is a pre-requisite for sustainable groundwater management, including the assessment of its vulnerability to contamination by pollutants. In this study, a comprehensive GIS approach was used to map the potential groundwater recharge zones across New Zealand. National data sets of lithology, slope, aspect, land use, soil drainage and drainage density were converted to raster data sets with a spatial resolution of 500 m×500 m and superimposed to derive groundwater potential zones. The resultant maps demonstrate that the potential is low in urban and mountainous areas, such as the Southern Alps, whereas the highest potential can be found in regions with large lakes and in the lower elevation plains areas, where Quaternary sediments prevail. The resulting maps can be used to identify areas of high nutrient leaching in zones where high groundwater recharge potential exists.
Compositionally zoned plutons, both layered and concentrically arranged, provide granitic exposures where the mechanisms and timing of the magmatic emplacement processes can be studied. The importance of in-situ geochemical differentiation and the magma replenishment rates are revealed by geochemistry and field relations, together with the increasingly accurate U-Pb geochronology, which has promoted the knowledge about the pluton incremental assembly theories.
The Flamenco pluton, located in the Coastal Range of northern Chile, is part of the Upper Triassic to Early Cretaceous Andean intrusives formed in the western active margin of South America, and present a normal zoned structure with mafic magmatic facies (mostly gabbros and Qtz-diorites) close to the contacts with the host metasediments, and tonalites, granodiorites and granites in the inner areas. A combined study of the field relations, geochemistry and zircon geochronology of the magmatic facies was applied to determine the emplacement sequence of the Flamenco pluton, revealing three distinguishable domains separated by metasedimentary septa. The SW area is constituted by mostly homogeneous leucocratic granodiorites that yielded an age of 213 Ma as the best estimation for their emplacement age. Distinctive geochemical characteristics, such as the absence of an Eu anomaly, the depletion in HREE, or the highest Sr, Sr/Y and Ce/Yb values among the granodioritic facies of the pluton, involve lower T and/or higher P conditions at the magmatic source according to experimental studies. These conditions were established during an early stage of the Andean magmatic arc building that is firstly defined here as Upper Triassic. The NW and E domains of the pluton were sequentially emplaced between 194 Ma and 186 Ma and both the field relations and the detailed geochronological results suggest that the mafic facies intruded latter in the emplacement sequence. To the NW, Qtz-dioritic and gabbroic externally emplaced pulses gave a younger crystallization age of 186.3±1.8 Ma, and promoted the granoblastic textures and metamorphic zircon overgrowths that characterize the granodiorites located in the contact with the intermediate and felsic inner magmas, which yielded a best estimation of their emplacement age of 192±1.5 Ma. On the other hand, in the eastern domain, magma-magma relations are observed between gabbros and previously intruded tonalites and granodiorites. Both the mafic and intermediate facies show two main subgroups of ages that yielded 194.7±1.5 Ma to 188.3±2.1 Ma and 193.1±2.2 Ma to 185.5±1.4 Ma respectively. These differences are related to the variations in the magmatic addition rates, which may extend the super-solidus conditions in the eastern domain of the magmatic reservoir as is confirmed by the wider age ranges yielded by these magmatic facies. Zircon overgrowths in the host rocks yield similar ages (around 220 Ma and 205 Ma) than the oldest results obtained in the intrusive facies, indicating that metamorphism correlates with the initial stages of plutonic emplacement.
Geochronological results differ between 9 Myr and 41 Myr in the eight studied samples for noninherited ages and gave very close mean ages (within analytical uncertainty) for all the intrusive units. However, we examine other characteristics such as zircon morphology, internal structure, geochemistry and statistical data to assess if the scattering of the geochronological data may be related to the different processes involved in the construction of the Flamenco pluton. We concluded that this detailed study of U-Pb zircon ages, including individual and significative groups of analyses, is useful to determine accurately the emplacement sequence and the genetic relation between the intrusive units, together with the evidences depicted by the geochemistry and field relations.
Different final closing ages have been proposed for the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO), including Late Silurian, pre-Late Devonian, Early Permian, Late-Permian and Late PermianeEarly Triassic. Ophiolites represent fragments of ancient oceanic crust and play an important role in identifying the suture zone and unveiling the evolutionary history of fossil oceans. Our detailed geological, geochemical and geochronological investigations argue for the existence of Early Permian (297 Ma) SSZ type ophiolites in the Sunidyouqi area of central Inner Mongolia, China. The gabbros and basalts show LREE depleted REE patterns and left-leaning primitive mantle-normalized spider diagrams with variable negative Nb-Ta anomalies (Nb* = 0.24-1.28 and 0.29-0.55, respectively). The Sunidyouqi ophiolites were generated in a mature back-arc basin. The Sunidyouqi ophiolites share the same petrological, geochemical and geochronological characteristics with the other ophiolites along the Solonker suture zone, delineating a Late Paleozoic ocean and arc-trench system. This Late Paleozoic ocean and arc-trench system coincides with a Permian paleobiogeographical boundary, i.e. the boundary between the northern cold climate (Boreal faunaleAngaraland floral realm), and a southern warm climate (Tethys faunaleCathaysian floral realm). A tectonic scenario was proposed at last for the closure of the SE PAO involving (1) Late Ordovician to Middle Permian continuous southward subduction beneath the northern margin of North China; (2) Carboniferous to Middle Permian continuous northward subduction the forming the Northern Accretionary Orogen; (3) Late Permian final closure of the SE PAO.
Estimation of petrophysical parameters is an important issue of any reservoirs. Porosity, volume of shale and water saturation has been evaluated for reservoirs of Upper Assam basin, located in northeastern India from well log and seismic data. Absolute acoustic impedance (AAI) and relative acoustic impedance (RAI) are generated from model based inversion of 2-D post-stack seismic data. The top of geological formation, sand reservoirs, shale layers and discontinuities at faults are detected in RAI section under the study area. Tipam Sandstone (TS) and Barail Arenaceous Sandstone (BAS) are the main reservoirs, delineated from the logs of available wells and RAI section. Porosity section is obtained using porosity wavelet and porosity reflectivity from post-stack seismic data. Two multilayered feed forward neural network (MLFN) models are created with inputs: AAI, porosity, density and shear impedance and outputs: volume of shale and water saturation with single hidden layer. The estimated average porosity in TS and BAS reservoir varies from 30% to 36% and 18% to 30% respectively. The volume of shale and water saturation ranges from 10% to 30% and 20% to 60% in TS reservoir and 28% to 30% and 23% to 55% in BAS reservoir respectively.
Demonstrating the biogenicity of presumptive microfossils in the geological record often requires supporting chemical signatures, including isotopic signatures. Understanding the mechanisms that promote the preservation of microbial biosignatures associated with microfossils is fundamental to unravelling the palaeomicrobiological history of the material. Organomineralization of microorganisms is likely to represent the first stages of microbial fossilisation and has been hypothesised to prevent the autolytic degradation of microbial cell envelope structures. In the present study, two distinct fossilisation textures (permineralised microfossils and iron oxide encrusted cell envelopes) identified throughout iron-rich rock samples were analysed using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). In this system, aluminium is enriched around the permineralised microfossils, while iron is enriched within the intracellularly, within distinct cell envelopes. Remarkably, while cell wall structures are indicated, carbon and nitrogen biosignatures are not preserved with permineralised microfossils. Therefore, the enrichment of aluminium, delineating these microfossils appears to have been critical to their structural preservation in this iron-rich environment. In contrast, NanoSIMS analysis of mineral encrusted cell envelopes reveals that preserved carbon and nitrogen biosignatures are associated with the cell envelope structures of these microfossils. Interestingly, iron is depleted in regions where carbon and nitrogen are preserved. In contrast aluminium appears to be slightly enriched in regions associated with remnant cell envelope structures. The correlation of aluminium with carbon and nitrogen biosignatures suggests the complexation of aluminium with preserved cell envelope structures before or immediately after cell death may have inactivated autolytic activity preventing the rapid breakdown of these organic, macromolecular structures. Combined, these results highlight that aluminium may play an important role in the preservation of microorganisms within the rock record.
The Central Patagonian Andes is a particular segment of the Andean Cordillera that has been subjected to the subduction of two spreading ridges during Eocene and Neogene times. In order to understand the Cenozoic geologic evolution of the Central Patagonian Andes, we carried out geochronologic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar), provenance, stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and geochemical studies on the sedimentary and volcanic Cenozoic deposits that crop out in the Meseta Guadal and Chile Chico areas (~47° S). Our data indicate the presence of a nearly complete Cenozoic record, which refutes previous interpretations of a hiatus during the middle Eocene-late Oligocene in the Central Patagonian Andes. Our study suggests that the fluvial strata of the Ligorio Márquez Formation and the flood basalts of the Basaltos Inferiores de la Meseta Chile Chico Formation were deposited in an extensional setting related to the subduction of the Aluk-Farallon spreading ridge during the late Paleocene-Eocene. Geochemical data on volcanic rocks interbedded with fluvial strata of the San José Formation suggest that this unit was deposited in an extensional setting during the middle Eocene to late Oligocene. Progressive crustal thinning allowed the transgression of marine waters of Atlantic origin and deposition of the upper Oligocene-lower Miocene Guadal Formation. The fluvial synorogenic strata of the Santa Cruz Formation were deposited as a consequence of an important phase of compressive deformation and Andean uplift during the early-middle Miocene. Finally, alkali flood basalts of the late middle to late Miocene Basaltos Superiores de la Meseta Chile Chico Formation were extruded in the area in response to the suduction of the Chile Ridge under an extensional regime. Our studies indicate that the tectonic evolution of the Central Patagonian Andes is similar to that of the North Patagonian Andes and appears to differ from that of the Southern Patagonian Andes, which is thought to have been the subject of continuous compressive deformation since the late Early Cretaceous.
Detailed mineralogical, bulk-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the recently discovered Ahobil kimberlite (Pipe-16) from the Wajrakarur kimberlite field (WKF), Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), southern India, are presented. Two generations of compositionally distinct olivine, Ti-poor phlogopite showing orangeitic evolutionary trends, spinel displaying magmatic trend-1, abundant perovskite, Tirich hydrogarnet, calcite and serpentine are the various mineral constituents. On the basis of (i) liquidus mineral composition, (ii) bulk-rock chemistry, and (iii) Sr-Nd isotopic composition, we show that Ahobil kimberlite shares several characteristic features of archetypal kimberlites than orangeites and lamproites. Geochemical modelling indicate Ahobil kimberlite magma derivation from small-degree melting of a carbonated peridotite source having higher Gd/Yb and lower La/Sm in contrast to those of orangeites from the Eastern Dharwar and Bastar cratons of Indian shield. The TDM Nd model age (~2.0 Ga) of the Ahobil kimberlite is (i) significantly older than those (1.5-1.3 Ga) reported for Wajrakarur and Narayanpet kimberlites of EDC, (ii) indistinguishable from those of the Mesoproterozoic EDC lamproites, and (iii) strikingly coincides with the timing of the amalgamation of the Columbia supercontinent. High bulk-rock Fe-Ti contents and wide variation in oxygen fugacity fO2, as inferred from perovskite oxybarometry, suggest non-prospective nature of the Ahobil kimberlite for diamond.
Several types of felsic granitoid rocks have been recognized, intrusive in both the mantle and the crustal sequence of the Semail ophiolite. Several models have been proposed for the source of this suite of tonalites, granodiorites, trondhjemites intrusions, however their genesis is still not clearly understood. The sampled Dadnah tonalites that intruded in the mantle section of the Semail ophiolite display arctype geochemical characteristics, are high siliceous, low-potassic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, enriched in LILE, show positive peaks for Ba, Pb, Eu, negative troughs for U, Ti and occur with low δ18OH2O, moderate εSr and negative εNd values. They have crystallized at temperatures that range from ~550 ℃ to ~720 ℃ and pressure ranging from 4.4 kbar to 6.5 kbar. The isotopic ages from our tonalite samples range between 98.6 Ma and 94.9 Ma, slightly older and overlapping with the age of the metamorphic sole. Our field observations, mineralogical, petrological, geochemical, isotopic and melt inclusion data suggest that the Dadnah tonalites formed by partial melting (~10%-15% continuous or ~12% batch partial melting), accumulation of plagioclase, fractional crystallization (~55%-57%), and interaction with their host harzburgites. These tonalites were the end result of partial melting and subsequent contamination and mixing of ~4% oceanic sediments with ~96% oceanic lithosphere from the subducted slab. This MORB-type slab melt composed from ~97% recycled oceanic crust and ~3% of the overlying mantle.
We suggest that a possible protolith for these tonalites was the basaltic lavas from the subducted oceanic slab that melted during the initial stages of the supra-subduction zone (SSZ), which was forming synchronously to the spreading ridge axis. The tonalite melts mildly modified due to low degree of mixing and interaction with the overlying lithospheric mantle. Subsequently, the Dadnah tonalites emplaced at the upper part of the mantle sequence of the Semail ophiolite and are geochemically distinct from the other mantle intrusive felsic granitoids to the south.
Finite volumes of magma moving in confinement, store hydraulic potential energy for the generation, control and transmission of power. The Pascal's principle in a hydraulic jack arrangement is used to model the vertical and lateral growth of sills. The small input piston of the hydraulic jack is equivalent to the feeder dike, the upper large expansible piston equivalent to the magmatic chamber and the inertial force of the magma in the dike is the input force. This arrangement is particularly relevant to the case of sills expanding with blunt tips, for which rapid fracture propagation is inhibited. Hydraulic models concur with experimental data that show that lateral expansion of magma into a sill is promoted when the vertical ascent of magma through a feeder dike reaches the bottom contact with an overlying, flat rigid-layer. At this point, the magma is forced to decelerate, triggering a pressure wave through the conduit caused by the continued ascent of magma further down (fluid-hammer effect). This pressure wave can provide overpressure enough to trigger the initial hydraulic lateral expansion of magma into an incipient sill, and still have enough input inertial force left to continue feeding the hydraulic system. The lateral expansion underneath the strong impeding layer, causes an area increase and thus, further hydraulic amplification of the input inertial force on the sides and roof of the incipient sill, triggering further expansion in a self-reinforcing process. Initially, the lateral pressure increase is larger than that in the roof allowing the sill to expand. However, expansion eventually increases the total integrated force on the roof allowing its uplift into either a laccolith, if the roof preserves continuity, or into a piston bounded by a circular set of fractures. Hydraulic models for shallow magmatic chambers, also suggest that laccolith-like intrusions require the existence of a self-supported chamber roof. In contrast, if the roof of magmatic chambers loses the self-supporting capacity, lopoliths and calderas should be expected for more or less dense magmas, respectively, owing to the growing influence of the density contrast between the host rock and the magma.