2022 Vol. 13, No. 2

Research Paper
Compressional origin of the Aegean Orogeny, Greece
Michael P. Searle, Thomas N. Lamont
2022, 13(2): 101049. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2020.07.008
The Aegean Sea area is thought to be an actively extending back-arc region, north of the present day Hellenic volcanic arc and north-dipping subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean. The area shows extensive normal faulting, ductile ‘extensional’ shear zones and extensional S-C fabrics throughout the islands that have previously been related to regional Aegean extension associated with slab rollback on the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this paper, we question this interpretation, and suggest the Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean region is associated with a Late Cretaceous–Eocene NE-dipping subduction zone that was responsible for continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Adria-Apulia/Cyclades. Exhumation of eclogite and blueschist facies rocks in the Cyclades and kyanite-sillimanite grade gneisses in the Naxos core complex have pressures that are far greater than could be accounted for purely by lithospheric extension and isostatic uplift. We identify four stages of crustal shortening that affected the region prior to regional lithospheric extension, herein called the Aegean Orogeny. This orogeny followed a classic Wilson cycle from early ophiolite obduction (ca. 74 Ma) onto a previously passive continental margin, to attempted crustal subduction with HP eclogite and blueschist facies metamorphism (ca. 54–45 ​Ma), through crustal thickening and regional kyanite – sillimanite grade Barrovian-type metamorphism (ca. 22–14 ​Ma), to orogenic collapse (<14 ​Ma). At least three periods of ‘extensional’ fabrics relate to: (1) Exhumation of blueschists and eclogite facies rocks showing tight-isoclinal folds and top-NE, base-SW fabrics, recording return flow along a subduction channel in a compressional tectonic setting (ca. 50–35 ​Ma). (2) Extensional fabrics within the core complexes formed by exhumation of kyanite- and sillimanite gneisses showing thrust-related fabrics at the base and ‘extensional’ fabrics along the top (ca. 18.5–14 ​Ma). (3) Regional ductile-brittle ‘extensional’ fabrics and low-angle normal faulting related to the North Cycladic Detachment (NCD) and the South(West) Cycladic Detachment (WCD) during regional extension along the flanks of a major NW–SE anticlinal fold along the middle of the Cyclades. Major low-angle normal faults and ductile shear zones show symmetry about the area, with the NE chain of islands (Andros, Tinos, Mykonos, Ikaria) exposing the NE-dipping NCD with consistent top-NE ductile fabrics along 200 ​km of strike. In contrast, from the Greek mainland (Attica) along the SE chain of islands (Kea, Kythnos, Serifos) a SW-dipping low-angle normal fault and ductile shear zone, the WCD is inferred for at least 100 ​km along strike. Islands in the middle of the Cyclades show deeper structural levels including kyanite- and sillimanite-grade metamorphic core complexes (Naxos, Paros) as well as Variscan basement rocks (Naxos, Ios). The overall structure is an ~100 ​km wavelength NW–SE trending dome with low-angle extensional faults along each flank, dipping away from the anticline axis to the NE and SW. Many individual islands show post-extensional large-scale folding of the low-angle normal faults around the domes (Naxos, Paros, Ios, Sifnos) indicating a post-Miocene late phase of E–W shortening.
The P-T-t-D evolution of the Mahabharat, east-central Nepal: The out-of-sequence development of the Himalaya
Kyle P. Larson, Sudip Shrestha, Mathieu Soret, Matthijs Smit
2022, 13(2): 101057. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2020.08.001
A garnet-bearing schist from the southernmost such exposure along the Himalaya in east central Nepal records prograde metamorphism at 32.4 ​± ​0.3 ​Ma. Phase equilibria modelling, combined with Ti-in-biotite and quartz c-axis thermometry, outline a tight-to-hairpin pressure-temperature (P-T) path extending from ~515 ​°C and 5.5 ​kbar to peak conditions at ~575 ​°C and 7 ​kbar followed by deformation during the retrograde phase at 480–515 ​°C and 6–7 ​kbar. The new geochronology data place an upper bound on the evolution of metamorphism and deformation in the frontal-most part of the Himalaya, which lasted until 17.5 ​Ma, as indicated by previously published 40Ar/39Ar data. The P-T-time data from this part of the Himalaya, as well as that from more hinterland-ward portions of the orogen, outline a progressive, stepwise, commonly out-of-sequence evolution. Further data from along the orogen indicates that this evolution is not a local phenomenon, but instead characterizes the tectonics of this system as a whole.
Metamorphic gradient modification in the Early Cretaceous Northern Andes subduction zone: A record from thermally overprinted high-pressure rocks
D.S. Avellaneda-Jiménez, A. Cardona, V. Valencia, S. León, I.F. Blanco-Quintero
2022, 13(2): 101090. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2020.09.019
New field observations and petrological data from Early Cretaceous metamorphic rocks in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes allowed the recognition of thermally overprinted high-pressure rocks derived from oceanic crust protoliths. The obtained metamorphic path suggests that the rocks evolved from blueschist to eclogite facies towards upper amphibolite to high-pressure granulite facies transitional conditions. Eclogite facies conditions, better recorded in mafic protoliths, are revealed by relic lawsonite and phengite, bleb- to worm-like diopside-albite symplectites, as well as garnet core composition. Upper amphibolite to high pressure granulite facies overprinting is supported by coarse-grained brown-colored Ti-rich amphibole, augite, and oligoclase recrystallization, as well as the record of partial melting leucosomes.Phase equilibria and pressure-temperature (P-T) path modeling suggest initial high-pressure metamorphic conditions M1 yielding 18.2–24.5 kbar and 465–580 °C, followed by upper amphibolite to high pressure granulite facies overprinting stage M2 yielding 6.5–14.2 kbar and 580–720 °C. Retrograde conditions M3 obtained through chlorite thermometry yield temperatures ranging around 286–400 °C at pressures below 6.5–11 kbar. The obtained clockwise P-T path, the garnet zonation pattern revealing a decrease in Xgrs/Xprp related to Mg# increment from core to rim, the presence of partial melting veins, as well as regional constraints, document the modification of the thermal structure of the active subduction zone in Northern Andes during the Early Cretaceous. Such increment of the metamorphic gradient within the subduction interface is associated with slab roll-back geodynamics where hot mantle inflow was triggered. This scenario is also argued by the reported trench-ward magmatic arc migration and multiple extensional basin formation during this period. The presented example constitutes the first report of Cretaceous roll-back-related metamorphism in the Caribbean and Andean realms, representing an additional piece of evidence for a margin-scale extensional event that modified the northwestern border of South America during the Early Cretaceous.
Geologic field evidence for non-lithostatic overpressure recorded in the North American Cordillera hinterland, northeast Nevada
Andrew V. Zuza, Drew A. Levy, Suzanne R. Mulligan
2022, 13(2): 101099. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2020.10.006
There is a long-standing discrepancy for numerous North American Cordillera metamorphic core complexes between geobarometric pressures recorded in the exhumed rocks and their apparent burial depths based on palinspastic reconstructions from geologic field data. In particular, metamorphic core complexes in eastern Nevada are comprised of well-documented ~12–15 km thick Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic stratigraphy of Laurentia's western passive margin, which allows for critical characterization of field relationships. In this contribution we focus on the Ruby Mountain–East Humboldt Range–Wood Hills–Pequop Mountains (REWP) metamorphic core complex of northeast Nevada to explore reported peak pressure estimates versus geologic field relationships that appear to prohibit deep burial. Relatively high pressure estimates of 6–8 kbar (23–30 km depth, if lithostatic) from the lower section of the Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic passive margin sequence require burial and or repetition of the passive margin sequence by 2–3× stratigraphic depths. Our observations from the least migmatized and/or mylonitized parts of this complex, including field observations, a transect of peak-temperature (Tp) estimates, and critical evaluation of proposed thickening/burial mechanisms cannot account for such deep burial. From Neoproterozoic–Cambrian (Ꞓ) rocks part of a continuous stratigraphic section that transitions ~8 km upsection to unmetamorphosed Permian strata that were not buried, we obtained new quartz-in-garnet barometry via Raman analysis that suggest pressures of ~7 kbar (~26 km). A Tp traverse starting at the same basal Ꞓ rocks reveals a smooth but hot geothermal gradient of ≥40 °C/km that is inconsistent with deep burial. This observation is clearly at odds with thermal gradients implied by high P-T estimates that are all ≤25 °C/km. Remarkably similar discrepancies between pressure estimates and field observations have been discussed for the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, ~200 km to the southeast. We argue that a possible reconciliation of long-established field observations versus pressures estimated from a variety of barometry techniques is that the rocks experienced non-lithostatic tectonic overpressure. We illustrate how proposed mechanisms to structurally bury the rocks, as have been invoked to justify published high pressure estimates, are entirely atypical of the Cordillera hinterland and unlike structures interpreted from other analogous orogenic plateau hinterlands. Proposed overpressure mechanisms are relevant in the REWP, including impacts from deviatoric/differential stress considerations, tectonic mode switching, and the autoclave effect driven by dehydration melting. Simple mechanical arguments demonstrate how this overpressure could have been achieved. This study highlights that detailed field and structural restorations of the least strained rocks in an orogen are critical to evaluate the tectonic history of more deformed rocks.
Zircon age depth-profiling sheds light on the early Caledonian evolution of the Seve Nappe Complex in west-central Jämtland
Katarzyna Walczak, Christopher J. Barnes, Jarosław Majka, David G. Gee, Iwona Klonowska
2022, 13(2): 101112. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2020.11.009
The Scandinavian Caledonides comprise nappe stacks of far-travelled allochthons that record closure of the Iapetus Ocean and subsequent continental collision of Baltica and Laurentia. The Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the Scandinavian Caledonides includes relics of the outermost Baltoscandian passive margin that were subducted to mantle depths. The earliest of the deep subduction events has been dated to ca. 500–480 Ma. Evidence of this event has been reported from the northern exposures of the SNC. Farther south in the central and southern segments of the SNC, (ultra)high-pressure rocks have yielded younger ages in the range of ca. 470–440 Ma.This study provides the first record of the early Caledonian event in the southern SNC. The evidence has been obtained by depth profiling of zircon grains that were extracted from the Tväråklumparna microdiamond-bearing gneiss. These zircon grains preserve eclogite facies overgrowths that crystallized at 482.6 ± 3.8 Ma. A second, chemically-distinct zircon overgrowth records granulite facies metamorphism at 439.3 ± 3.6 Ma, which corroborates previous geochronological evidence for granulite facies metamorphism at this time. Based on these results, we propose that the entire outer margin of Baltica was subducted in the late Cambrian to early Ordovician, but the record of this event may be almost entirely eradicated in the vast majority of lithologies by pervasive late Ordovician to early Silurian metamorphism.
The ~1.4 Ga A-type granitoids in the “Chottanagpur crustal block” (India), and its relocation from Columbia to Rodinia?
Nicole Sequeira, Abhijit Bhattacharya, Elizabeth Bell
2022, 13(2): 101138. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2020.12.017
In paleogeographic reconstructions of the Columbia and Rodinia Supercontinents, the position of the Greater India landmass is ambiguous. This, coupled with a limited understanding of the tectonic evolution of the mobile belts along which the mosaic of crustal domains in India accreted, impedes precise correlation among the dispersed crustal fragments in supercontinent reconstructions. Using structural, metamorphic phase equilibria, chronological and geochemical investigations, this study aims to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of the Chottanagpur Gneiss Complex (CGC) as a distinct crustal block at the eastern end of the Greater Indian Proterozoic Fold Belt (GIPFOB) along which the North India Block (NIB) and the South India Block (SIB) accreted. The study focuses on two issues, e.g. dating the Early Neoproterozoic (0.92 Ga) accretion of the CGC with the NIB contemporaneous with the assembly of Rodinia, and documenting the widespread (>24,000 km2) plutonism of 1.5–1.4 Ga weakly peraluminous, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic and ferroan A-type granitoids (± garnet) devoid of mafic microgrannular enclaves and coeval mafic emplacements in the crustal block. These dominantly within-plate granitoids arguably formed by asthenospheric upwelling induced partial melting of garnet-bearing anatectic quartzofeldspathic gneisses that dominate the Early Mesoproterozoic basement of the block. The major and trace element chemistry of the granitoids is similar to the 1.35–1.45 Ga A-type granitoids in Laurentia/Amazonia emplaced contemporaneous with the 1.5–1.3 Ga breakup of the Columbia Supercontinent.This study suggests the Chottanagpur Gneiss Complex occured as a fragmented crustal block following the breakup of the Columbia Supercontinent; the crustal block was subsequently integrated within India during the Early Neoproterozoic oblique accretion between the NIB and SIB contemporaneous with the Rodinia Supercontinent assembly.
Metamorphic stages in mountain belts during a Wilson cycle: A case study in the central Sanandaj–Sirjan zone (Zagros Mountains, Iran)
Farzaneh Shakerardakani, Franz Neubauer, Manfred Bernroider, Fritz Finger, Christoph Hauzenberger, Johann Genser, Michael Waitzinger, Behzad Monfaredi
2022, 13(2): 101272. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101272
Polymetamorphic units are important constituents of continent–continent collisional orogens, and rift metamorphic assemblages are often overprinted by subsequent metamorphism during subduction and collision. This study reports the metamorphic conditions and evolution of the Dorud–Azna metamorphic units in the central part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan zone (SSZ), Iran. Here, new geothermobarometry results are integrated with 40Ar/39Ar mineral and Th–U–Pb monazite and thorite ages to provide new insight of polyphase metamorphism in the two different basement units of the SSZ, the lower Galeh-Doz orthogneiss and higher Amphibolite-Metagabbro units. In the Amphibolite-Metagabbro unit, staurolite micaschist underwent a prograde P–T evolution from 640 ± 20 °C/6.2 ± 0.8 kbar in garnet cores (M1) to 680 ± 20 °C/7.2 ± 1.0 kbar in garnet rims (M2). Three Th–U–Pb monazite ages of 306 ± 5 Ma, 322 ± 28 Ma and 336 ± 39 Ma from the garnet-micaschists testify the Carboniferous age of M1 metamorphism. In the same unit, the metagabbro records P–T conditions of 4.0 ± 0.8 kbar and 580 ± 50 °C in the (magmatic) amphibole core (Late Carboniferous intrusion) to 7.5 ± 0.7 kbar and 700 ± 20 °C in the amphibole rim indicating a prograde P–T path during subsequent burial (M1). New 40Ar/39Ar dating of white mica from the staurolite micaschist yielded a staircase pattern ranging from 36 ± 12 Ma to 170 ± 2 Ma. This implies polymetamorphism with a minimum Late Jurassic cooling age through the Ar retention temperature of ca. 425 ± 25 °C after M2 metamorphism and a Paleogene low-grade metamorphic overprint (M3), while 40Ar/39Ar white mica dating of garnet micaschist yielded a plateau age of 137.84 ± 0.65 Ma. We therefore interpret the amphibolite-grade metamorphism M2 to have predated 170 Ma and is likely between 180 and 200 Ma. Furthermore, it is overprinted at about 36 Ma under retrogressive low-grade M3 metamorphism (at temperatures of ~350–240 °C) during final shortening and exhumation. In the underlying Galeh-Doz unit, the Panafrican granitic orthogneiss intruded at P–T conditions of 3.2 ± 4 kbar and 700 ± 20 °C, then it was metamorphosed and deformed at 600 ± 50 °C and 2.0 ± 0.8 kbar (metamorphic stage M1) prior to Late Carboniferous intrusion of mafic dikes. 40Ar/39Ar dating of amphibole from the Galeh-Doz orthogneiss gave plateau-like steps between 260 and 270 Ma, representing the age of cooling through ca. 500 °C after the M1 metamorphic event. Interestingly, the results of this study demonstrate polyphase metamorphic histories in both the Galeh-Doz orthogneiss and Amphibolite-Metagabbro units at different P–T conditions and final thick-skinned Paleogene emplacement of these units over the underlying low-grade metamorphic June Complex. Our findings suggest that both units are affected by high-T/low-P Late Carboniferous orogenic metamorphism along with the bimodal magmatism, as result of rifting. We propose that the Early Jurassic amphibolite-grade M2 metamorphism of the SSZ is correlated with the initial subduction of the Neotethyan Ocean. Eventually, the investigated units reflect various stages of a Wilson cycle, from rifting to initiation of the subduction in final plate collision.
Predicting the excavation damaged zone within brittle surrounding rock masses of deep underground caverns using a comprehensive approach integrating in situ measurements and numerical analysis
Ding-Ping Xu, Xiang Huang, Shao-Jun Li, Huai-Sheng Xu, Shi-Li Qiu, Hong Zheng, Quan Jiang
2022, 13(2): 101273. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101273
Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) scope is important for optimizing excavation and support schemes in deep underground caverns. However, accurately predicting the full EDZ scope within the surrounding rock masses of deep underground caverns during excavation remains a pressing problem. This study presents a comprehensive EDZ scope prediction approach (CESPA) for the brittle surrounding rock masses of deep underground caverns by coupling numerical simulation with quantitative analysis of borehole wall images and ultrasonic test results. First, the changes in both P-velocity () and joint distribution of the surrounding rock masses before and after excavation damage are captured using ultrasonic tests and borehole digital cameras. Second, the quality Q-parameters of the surrounding rock mass before and after excavation damage are preliminarily rated with the rock mass descriptions provided by borehole wall images, and the rock mass -parameter values are determined according to the –borehole depth curves. Third, the Q-parameter ratings are further finely adjusted by updating the related Q-values to be similar with the Q-values estimated by -parameter values. Fourth, the initial and residual mechanical parameters for the rock mass deterioration model () are estimated by the adjusted Q-parameter ratings based on the modified Q-based relations, and the elastic modulus deterioration index () threshold to describe the EDZ boundary is determined with the -parameter values. Finally, EDZ scope is predicted using the elastoplastic numerical simulation with and based on the mechanical parameter estimates and threshold. Analyses of applications in Sub-lab D1 in Jinping II project show that CESPA can provide a reliable and operable solution for predicting full EDZ scopes within the brittle surrounding rock masses of deep underground caverns.
Analysing the relationship between drought and soil erosion using vegetation health index and RUSLE models in Godavari middle sub-basin, India
Md Masroor, Haroon Sajjad, Sufia Rehman, Roshani Singh, Md Hibjur Rahaman, Mehebub Sahana, Raihan Ahmed, Ram Avtar
2022, 13(2): 101312. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101312
Drought is a natural phenomenon posing severe implications for soil, groundwater and agricultural yield. It has been recognized as one of the most pervasive global change drivers to affect the soil. Soil being a weakly renewable resource takes a long time to form, but it takes no time to degrade. However, the response of soil to drought conditions as soil loss is not manifested in the existing literature. Thus, this study makes a concerted effort to analyze the relationship between drought conditions and soil erosion in the middle sub-basin of the Godavari River in India. MODIS remote sensing data was utilized for driving drought indices during 2000–2019. Firstly, we constricted Temperature condition index (TCI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) from Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from MODIS data. TCI and VCI were then integrated to determine the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was utilized for estimating soil loss. The relationship between drought condition and vegetation was ascertained using the Pearson correlation. Most of the northern and southern watersheds experienced severe drought condition in the sub-basin during 2000–2019. The mean frequency of the drought occurrence was 7.95 months. The average soil erosion in the sub-basin was estimated to be 9.88 t ha1 year1. A positive relationship was observed between drought indices and soil erosion values (r value being 0.35). However, wide variations were observed in the distribution of spatial correlation. Among various factors, the slope length and steepness were found to be the main drivers of soil erosion in the sub-basin. Thus, the study calls for policy measures to lessen the impact of drought and soil erosion.
Optimized functional linked neural network for predicting diaphragm wall deflection induced by braced excavations in clays
Chengyu Xie, Hoang Nguyen, Yosoon Choi, Danial Jahed Armaghani
2022, 13(2): 101313. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101313
Deep excavation during the construction of underground systems can cause movement on the ground, especially in soft clay layers. At high levels, excessive ground movements can lead to severe damage to adjacent structures. In this study, finite element analyses (FEM) and the hardening small strain (HSS) model were performed to investigate the deflection of the diaphragm wall in the soft clay layer induced by braced excavations. Different geometric and mechanical properties of the wall were investigated to study the deflection behavior of the wall in soft clays. Accordingly, 1090 hypothetical cases were surveyed and simulated based on the HSS model and FEM to evaluate the wall deflection behavior. The results were then used to develop an intelligent model for predicting wall deflection using the functional linked neural network (FLNN) with different functional expansions and activation functions. Although the FLNN is a novel approach to predict wall deflection; however, in order to improve the accuracy of the FLNN model in predicting wall deflection, three swarm-based optimization algorithms, such as artificial bee colony (ABC), Harris’s hawk’s optimization (HHO), and hunger games search (HGS), were hybridized to the FLNN model to generate three novel intelligent models, namely ABC-FLNN, HHO-FLNN, HGS-FLNN. The results of the hybrid models were then compared with the basic FLNN and MLP models. They revealed that FLNN is a good solution for predicting wall deflection, and the application of different functional expansions and activation functions has a significant effect on the outcome predictions of the wall deflection. It is remarkably interesting that the performance of the FLNN model was better than the MLP model with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 19.971, root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 24.574, and determination coefficient (R2) of 0.878. Meanwhile, the performance of the MLP model only obtained an MAE of 20.321, RMSE of 27.091, and R2 of 0.851. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the proposed hybrid models, i.e., ABC-FLNN, HHO-FLNN, HGS-FLNN, yielded more superior performances than those of the FLNN and MLP models in terms of the prediction of deflection behavior of diaphragm walls with an MAE in the range of 11.877 to 12.239, RMSE in the range of 15.821 to 16.045, and R2 in the range of 0.949 to 0.951. They can be used as an alternative tool to simulate diaphragm wall deflections under different conditions with a high degree of accuracy.
Advances of ferrous and ferric Mössbauer recoilless fractions in minerals and glasses
Hongluo L. Zhang
2022, 13(2): 101316. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101316
Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize the ferric (Fe3+) and ferrous (Fe2+) proportions and coordination of solid materials. To obtain these accurately, the recoilless fraction is indispensible. The recoilless fractions (f) of iron-bearing minerals, including oxides, oxyhydroxides, silicates, carbonates, phosphates and dichalcogenides, and silicate glasses were evaluated from the temperature dependence of their center shifts or absorption area with the Debye model approximation. Generally, the resolved Debye temperature (θD) of ferric iron in minerals, except dichalcogenides, through their center shifts ranging from 400 to 550 K, is significantly larger than ferrous iron ranging from 300 to 400 K, which is consistent with the conclusion from previous work. The resolved f (Fe3+)RT with the center shift model (CSM) ranges from 0.825 to 0.925, which is larger than that obtained for f(Fe2+)RT, which ranges from 0.675 to 0.750. Meanwhile, the θD and f resolved from temperature-dependence of absorption are generally lower than from center shifts, especially for ferric iron. The significant difference between f(Fe3+) and f(Fe2+) indicates the necessity of recoilless fraction correction on the Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+) resolved from Mössbauer spectra.
Uncertainty pattern in landslide susceptibility prediction modelling: Effects of different landslide boundaries and spatial shape expressions
Faming Huang, Jun Yan, Xuanmei Fan, Chi Yao, Jinsong Huang, Wei Chen, Haoyuan Hong
2022, 13(2): 101317. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101317
In some studies on landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM), landslide boundary and spatial shape characteristics have been expressed in the form of points or circles in the landslide inventory instead of the accurate polygon form. Different expressions of landslide boundaries and spatial shapes may lead to substantial differences in the distribution of predicted landslide susceptibility indexes (LSIs); moreover, the presence of irregular landslide boundaries and spatial shapes introduces uncertainties into the LSM. To address this issue by accurately drawing polygonal boundaries based on LSM, the uncertainty patterns of LSM modelling under two different landslide boundaries and spatial shapes, such as landslide points and circles, are compared. Within the research area of Ruijin City in China, a total of 370 landslides with accurate boundary information are obtained, and 10 environmental factors, such as slope and lithology, are selected. Then, correlation analyses between the landslide boundary shapes and selected environmental factors are performed via the frequency ratio (FR) method. Next, a support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) based on landslide points, circles and accurate landslide polygons are constructed as point-, circle- and polygon-based SVM and RF models, respectively, to address LSM. Finally, the prediction capabilities of the above models are compared by computing their statistical accuracy using receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the uncertainties of the predicted LSIs under the above models are discussed. The results show that using polygonal surfaces with a higher reliability and accuracy to express the landslide boundary and spatial shape can provide a markedly improved LSM accuracy, compared to those based on the points and circles. Moreover, a higher degree of uncertainty of LSM modelling is present in the expression of points because there are too few grid units acting as model input variables. Additionally, the expression of the landslide boundary as circles introduces errors in measurement and is not as accurate as the polygonal boundary in most LSM modelling cases. In addition, the results under different conditions show that the polygon-based models have a higher LSM accuracy, with lower mean values and larger standard deviations compared with the point- and circle-based models. Finally, the overall LSM accuracy of the RF is superior to that of the SVM, and similar patterns of landslide boundary and spatial shape affecting the LSM modelling are reflected in the SVM and RF models.
An application of artificial intelligence for investigating the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on three-dimensional temperature variation in equatorial Africa
Daniel Okoh, Loretta Onuorah, Babatunde Rabiu, Aderonke Obafaye, Dauda Audu, Najib Yusuf, Oluwafisayo Owolabi
2022, 13(2): 101318. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101318
We present interesting application of artificial intelligence for investigating effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on 3-dimensional temperature variation across Nigeria (2°–15° E, 4°–14° N), in equatorial Africa. Artificial neural networks were trained to learn time-series temperature variation patterns using radio occultation measurements of atmospheric temperature from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC). Data used for training, validation and testing of the neural networks covered period prior to the lockdown. There was also an investigation into the viability of solar activity indicator (represented by the sunspot number) as an input for the process. The results indicated that including the sunspot number as an input for the training did not improve the network prediction accuracy. The trained network was then used to predict values for the lockdown period. Since the network was trained using pre-lockdown dataset, predictions from the network are regarded as expected temperatures, should there have been no lockdown. By comparing with the actual COSMIC measurements during the lockdown period, effects of the lockdown on atmospheric temperatures were deduced. In overall, the mean altitudinal temperatures rose by about 1.1 °C above expected values during the lockdown. An altitudinal breakdown, at 1 km resolution, reveals that the values were typically below 0.5 °C at most of the altitudes, but exceeded 1 °C at 28 and 29 km altitudes. The temperatures were also observed to drop below expected values at altitudes of 0–2 km, and 17–20 km.
The petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas reconsidered: Ti-V and Nb-Th
John W. Shervais
2022, 13(2): 101319. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101319
Tectonic discrimination diagrams are a key tool for understanding ancient volcanic rock origins. In this contribution we compile over 15,000 whole rock compositions to re-evaluate the Ti-V discrimination diagram and compare it to another commonly used tool, the Nb/Yb-Th/Yb diagram. We have reformulated the Ti-V diagram into a log–log plot to distinguish samples more clearly at lower concentrations. The compilation shows that MORB are dominated by Ti/V = 20–43, whereas juvenile arc tholeiites and boninites are characterized by Ti/V < 20 generally, although there is minor overlap at the boundary (Ti/V = 20–22). Plume-related volcanic rocks (ocean island basalts, oceanic plateaux, and continental flood basalts) generally have Ti/V > 43, although there may be significant overlap with MORB-like ratios for ridge-centered OIB and for some oceanic plateaux. About 56% of alkaline OIB have Ti/V > 70. Back-arc basins are dominantly MORB-like. Melt models show that MORB and juvenile arc volcanics most likely formed under different ƒO2 conditions, but are permissive of similar ƒO2 if the arc rocks form by much higher melt fractions. The Nb/Yb vs. Th/Yb plot clearly distinguishes most oceanic basalts (MORB, plateaux, OIB) from subduction-related volcanic rocks (boninite, juvenile arc tholeiite, calc-alkaline) and from flood basalts. We propose here a new two-proxy diagram of Ti/V vs. Th/Nb, which incorporates the advantages of both.
Metallogenic model of the Shuangjianzishan Ag-Pb-Zn district, Northeast China: Revealed from integrated geophysical investigation
Yihao Wu, Jiangtao Han, Yunhe Liu, Guoqing Ma, Fuxing Han, Yanchen Yang, Lijia Liu, Lei Guo, Ye Guan, Yinghui Zhang, Zhenyu Guo, Qian Mu
2022, 13(2): 101321. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101321
The Shuangjianzishan deposit in Inner Mongolia is a typical Ag-Pb-Zn deposit of the southern Great Xing’an Range. Proven reserves of Ag, Pb, and Zn in this deposit have reached the scale of super-large deposits, with favorable metallogenic conditions, strong prospecting signs, and high metallogenic potential. This paper reports a study involving integrated geophysical methods, including controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric, gravity, magnetic, and shallow-seismic-reflection methods, to determine the spatial distribution of ore-controlling structures and subsurface intrusive rock for a depth range of <2000 m in the Shuangjianzishan ore district. The objective of this study is to construct a metallogenic model of the ore district and provide a scientific basis for the exploration of similar deposits in the deep and surrounding regions. We used three-dimensional inversion for controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric data based on the limited memory quasi-Newton algorithm, and three-dimensional physical-property inversion for the gravity and magnetic data to obtain information about the subsurface distribution of ore-controlling structures and intrusive rocks. Under seismic reflection results, regional geology, petrophysical properties, and borehole information, the geophysical investigation shows that the Dashizhai group, which contains the main ore-bearing strata in the ore district, is distributed within a depth range of <1239 m, and is thick in the Xinglongshan ore block and the eastern part of the Shuangjianzishan ore block. The mineralization is spatially associated with a fault system characterized by NE-, NW-, and N-trending faults. The magnetic and electrical models identify large, deep bodies of intrusive rock that are inferred to have been involved in mineralization, with local shallow emplacement of some intrusions. Combining the subsurface spatial distributions of ore-bearing strata, ore-controlling faults, and intrusive rock, we propose two different metallogenic models for the Shuangjianzishan ore district, which provide a scientific basis for further prospecting in the deep regions of the ore district and surrounding areas.
Evolution of nC16H34-water–mineral systems in thermal capsules and geological implications for deeply-buried hydrocarbon reservoirs
Guang-Hui Yuan, Zi-Hao Jin, Ying-Chang Cao, Ke-Yu Liu, Jon Gluyas, Yan-Zhong Wang, Ke-Lai Xi
2022, 13(2): 101322. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101322
Organic-inorganic interactions between hydrocarbons and most minerals in deeply buried reservoirs remain unclear. In this study, gold capsules and fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs) with different combinations of nC16H34, water (distilled water, CaCl2 water) and minerals (quartz, feldspar, calcite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite) were heated at 340 °C for 3–10 d, to investigate the evolution and reaction pathways of the organic–inorganic interactions in different hot systems.After heating, minerals exhibited little alteration in the anhydrous systems. Mineral alterations, however, occurred obviously in the hydrous systems. Different inorganic components affected nC16H34 degradation differently. Overall, water promoted the free-radical thermal-cracking reaction and step oxidation reaction but suppressed the free-radical cross-linking reaction. The impact of CaCl2 water on the nC16H34 degradation was weaker than the distilled water as high Ca2+ concentration suppressed the formation of free radicals. The presence of different waters also affects the impact of different minerals on nC16H34 degradation, via its impact on mineral alterations. In the anhydrous nC16H34-mineral systems, calcite and clays catalyzed generation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) alkanes, particularly the clays. Quartz, feldspar, and calcite catalyzed generation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) alkanes and PAHs, whereas clays catalyzed the generation of LMW alkanes and mono-bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (M-BAHs). In the hydrous nC16H34-distilled water–mineral systems, all minerals but quartz promoted nC16H34 degradation to generate more LMW alkanes, less HMW alkanes and PAHs. In the nC16H34-CaCl2 water–mineral systems, the promotion impact of minerals was weaker than that in the systems with distilled water.This study demonstrated the generation of different hydrocarbons with different fluorescence colors in the different nC16H34-water–mineral systems after heating for the same time, implying that fluorescence colors need to be interpreted carefully in investigation of hydrocarbon charging histories and oil origins in deeply buried reservoirs. Besides, the organic–inorganic interactions in different nC16H34-water–mineral systems proceeded in different pathways at different rates, which likely led to preservation of liquid hydrocarbons at different depth (temperature). Thus, quantitative investigations of the reaction kinetics in different hydrocarbon-water-rock systems are required to improve the prediction of hydrocarbon evolution in deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Paleo-oil reservoir pyrolysis and gas release in the Yangtze Block imply an alternative mechanism for the Late Permian Crisis
Chengyu Yang, Meijun Li, Zhiyong Ni, Tieguan Wang, Nansheng Qiu, Ronghui Fang, Long Wen
2022, 13(2): 101324. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101324
The causes of the global mass extinction that occurred around the Permian–Triassic boundary have been widely studied through the geological record and in various locations. The results show that volcanic activity was a key factor in initiating the crisis during the Late Permian. Compared to other thermal events triggered by volcanic activity, pyrolysis of petroleum in Pre-Permian reservoirs has rarely been suggested as a significant source of the greenhouse gases that caused the mass extinction. In this study, geochemical analysis is carried out of a huge paleo-oil reservoir in the Yangtze Block (YB), South China. The detection of mineral inclusions and pyrobitumens is evidence of rapid pyrolysis of accumulated oil in the Ediacaran reservoir. New evidence from hydrothermal minerals and the presence of domain mesophase in the pyrobitumen suggest that the pyrolysis process occurred abruptly and that greenhouse gases were rapidly released through venting pipes. The dating of such a complex geological event in this old and deeply buried reservoir is inevitably difficult and potentially unreliable. However, cross-validation of the multiple evidence sources, including hydrothermal minerals and domain mesophase, indicates that the rapid oil pyrolysis must have been driven by a major thermal event. Reconstruction of burial and thermal histories suggests that the thermal event was most likely to have been triggered by the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), which was in a period of significant volcanic activity during the Late Permian. Massive volumes of gases, including methane, carbon dioxide, and possibly hydrogen sulfide, were released, causing a significant increase in greenhouse gases that may have contributed to global warming and the resulting mass extinction during the Late Permian Crisis (LPC).
Evaluation and comparison of CMIP6 models and MERRA-2 reanalysis AOD against Satellite observations from 2000 to 2014 over China
Md. Arfan Ali, Muhammad Bilal, Yu Wang, Zhongfeng Qiu, Janet E. Nichol, Gerrit de Leeuw, Song Ke, Alaa Mhawish, Mansour Almazroui, Usman Mazhar, Birhanu Asmerom Habtemicheal, M. Nazrul Islam
2022, 13(2): 101325. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101325
Rapid industrialization and urbanization along with a growing population are contributing significantly to air pollution in China. Evaluation of long-term aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from models and reanalysis, can greatly promote understanding of spatiotemporal variations in air pollution in China. To do this, AOD (550 nm) values from 2000 to 2014 were obtained from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CIMP6), the second version of Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research, and Applications (MERRA-2), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; flying on the Terra satellite) combined Dark Target and Deep Blue (DTB) aerosol product. We used the Terra-MODIS DTB AOD (hereafter MODIS DTB AOD) as a standard to evaluate CMIP6 Ensemble AOD (hereafter CMIP6 AOD) and MERRA-2 reanalysis AOD (hereafter MERRA-2 AOD). Results show better correlations and smaller errors between MERRA-2 and MODIS DTB AOD, than between CMIP6 and MODIS DTB AOD, in most regions of China, at both annual and seasonal scales. However, significant under- and over-estimations in the MERRA-2 and CMIP6 AOD were also observed relative to MODIS DTB AOD. The long-term (2000–2014) MODIS DTB AOD distributions show the highest AOD over the North China Plain (0.71) followed by Central China (0.69), Yangtse River Delta (0.67), Sichuan Basin (0.64), and Pearl River Delta (0.54) regions. The lowest AOD values were recorded over the Tibetan Plateau (0.13 ± 0.01) followed by Qinghai (0.19 ± 0.03) and the Gobi Desert (0.21 ± 0.03). Large amounts of sand and dust particles emitted from natural sources (the Taklamakan and Gobi Deserts) may result in higher AOD in spring compared to summer, autumn, and winter. Trends were also calculated for 2000–2005, for 2006–2010 (when China introduced strict air pollution control policies during the 11th Five Year Plan or FYP), and for 2011–2014 (during the 12th FYP). An increasing trend in MODIS DTB AOD was observed throughout the country during 2000–2014. The uncontrolled industrialization, urbanization, and rapid economic development that mostly occurred from 2000 to 2005 probably contributed to the overall increase in AOD. Finally, China's air pollution control policies helped to reduce AOD in most regions of the country; this was more evident during the 12th FYP period (2011–2014) than during the 11th FYP period (2006–2010). Therefore this study strongly advises the authority to retain or extend these policies in the future for improving air quality.
Isotope hydrogeochemical models for assessing the hydrological processes in a part of the largest continental flood basalts province of India
Md. Arzoo Ansari, Jacob Noble, Archana Deodhar, U. Saravana Kumar
2022, 13(2): 101336. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101336
Continental Flood Basalts (CFB) occupy one fourth of the world’s land area. Hence, it is important to discern the hydrological processes in this complex hydrogeological setup for the sustainable water resources development. A model assisted isotope, geochemical, geospatial and geophysical study was conducted to understand the monsoonal characteristics, recharge processes, renewability and geochemical evolution in one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces of India. HYSPLIT modelling and stable isotopes were used to assess the monsoonal characteristics. Rayleigh distillation model were used to understand the climatic conditions at the time of groundwater recharge. Lumped parameter models (LPM) were employed to quantify the mean transit time (MTT) of groundwater. Statistical and geochemical models were adopted to understand the geochemical evolution along the groundwater flow path. A geophysical model was used to understand the geometry of the aquifer. The back trajectory analysis confirms the isotopic finding that precipitation in this region is caused by orographic uplifting of air masses originating from the Arabian Sea. Stable isotopic data of groundwater showed its meteoric origin and two recharge processes were discerned; (i) quick and direct recharge by precipitation through fractured and weathered basalt, (ii) low infiltration through the clayey black cotton soil and subjected to evaporation prior to the recharge. Tritium data showed that the groundwater is a renewable source and have shorter transit times (from present day to <30 years). The hydrogeochemical study indicated multiple sources/processes such as: the minerals dissolution, silicate weathering, ion exchange, anthropogenic influences etc. control the chemistry of the groundwater. Based on the geo-electrical resistivity survey, the potential zones (weathered and fractured) were delineated for the groundwater development. Thus, the study highlights the usefulness of model assisted isotopic hydrogeochemical techniques for understanding the recharge and geochemical processes in a basaltic aquifer system.
Thermoelectric characteristics of semiconductor minerals in earth’s deep crust and their seismogenic significance
Shuhao Wang, Junfeng Shen, M. Santosh, Yuanyuan Li, Cheng-Xue Yang, Liangkun Ma
2022, 13(2): 101337. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101337
Geo-electric anomalies are generated during the process of stress accumulation and release associated with earthquakes. However, the mechanism of these anomalies remains equivocal. Based on the analysis of thermoelectric characteristics of semiconductor minerals of the earth’s deep crust such as graphite, ferrosilicon alloy, magnetite etc., we perform finite element analysis to evaluate the principles governing the thermoelectric power generated by minerals and rocks. The results show that graphite, ferrosilicon alloy and magnetite all exhibit Seebeck effect and can be superimposed. And the thermo-electric field can be enhanced with the activation temperature increases, the content of thermoelectric minerals increases, the size of aggregates increases, and the spacing of thermoelectric minerals grains decreases. Seismogenic processes would generate a similar thermal gradient. The natural semiconductor minerals in this thermal field show a thermoelectric effect, forming a thermoelectric field that interferes with the background electric field. This study indicates that thermoelectric effect may have an important influence on the formation of geoelectric field.
Geochronology and geochemistry of Cretaceous–Eocene granites, Tengchong Block (SW China): Petrogenesis and implications for Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Eastern Tethys
Yongqing Chen, Guangjie Li, Luxue Qin, Yingxiang Lu, Chengxing Jiang
2022, 13(2): 101338. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101338
The Early Cretaceous–Early Eocene granitoids in the Tengchong Block record the evolutionary history of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of Eastern Tethys. (a) The Early Cretaceous granitoids with relatively low (87Sr/86Sr) ratios of 0.7090–0.7169 and εNd(t) values of −9.8 to −7.8 display metaluminous, calc-alkaline dominated by I-type granite affinity and hybrid mantle–crust geochemical signatures. They may have been derived from melting of the subducted Meso-Tethyan Bangong-Nujiang oceanic crust with terrigenous sediments in an arc-continent collisional setting. (b) The Late Cretaceous–Paleocene granitoids with relatively high (87Sr/86Sr) ratios of 0.7109–0.7627, and εNd(t) values of −12.1 to −7.9 exhibit metaluminous to peraluminous, calc-alkaline dominated by S-type granite affinity and hybrid Lower–Upper crust geochemical signatures, which may be originated from partial melting of the Meso-Proterozoic continental crust in the collision setting between the Tengchong Block and Baoshan Block. (c) The Early Eocene granitoids have metaluminous, calc-alkaline I-type and S-type granites dual affinity, with relatively high (87Sr/86Sr) ratios of 0.711–0.736, εNd(t) values of −9.4 to −4.7, showing crust-mantle mixing geochemical signatures. They may have been originated from partial melting of the late Meso-Proterozoic upper crustal components mixed with some upper mantle material during the ascent process of mantle magma caused by the subduction of the Neo-Tethyan Putao–Myitkyian oceanic crust, and collision between the Western Burma Block and the Tengchong Block. It is these multi-stage subductions and collisions that caused the spatial and temporal distribution of the granitic rocks in the Tengchong Block.
Re-evaluating monazite as a record of metamorphic reactions
Kyle P. Larson, Sudip Shrestha, John M. Cottle, Carl Guilmette, T. Alex Johnson, H. Daniel Gibson, Félix Gervais
2022, 13(2): 101340. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101340
This study presents a re-examination of historical specimens (DG136 and DG167) from the Monashee complex in the southeastern Canadian Cordillera that are critical to the current understanding of rare earth element (REE) distribution between garnet and monazite (and other accessory minerals) during metamorphism. Nine-hundred and fifty-one new monazite petrochronology spot analyses on 29 different grains across two specimens outline detailed (re)crystallization histories. Trace element data collected from the same ablated volume, interpreted in the context of new phase equilibria modelling that includes monazite, xenotime and apatite, link ages to specific portions of the pressure–temperature (P-T) paths followed by the specimens. These linkages are further informed by garnet Lu-Hf geochronology and xenotime petrochronology. The clockwise P-T paths indicate prograde metamorphism was ongoing by ca. 80 Ma in both specimens. The structurally deeper specimen, DG136, records peak P-T conditions of ~755–770 ℃ and 8.8–10.4 kbar, interpreted to coincide with (re-)crystallization of low Y monazite at ∼75–70 Ma. Near-rim garnet isopleths from DG167 cross in the observed peak assemblage field at ∼680 °C and 9.3 kbar. These conditions are interpreted to correspond with low Y monazite (re-)crystallisation at ∼65 Ma. Both specimens record decompression along their retrograde path coincident with high Y 70–55 Ma and 65–55 Ma monazite populations in DG136 and DG167, respectively. These findings broadly agree with those initially reported ∼20 years ago and confirm early interpretations using trace elements in monazite as generally reliable markers of metamorphic reactions. Modern phase equilibria modelling and in situ petrochronological analysis, however, provide additional insight into monazite behaviour during anatexis and the effects of potential trace element buffering by REE-bearing phases such as apatite.
Generation of Nb-enriched mafic rocks and associated adakitic rocks from the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence of crust-mantle interaction
Yan Jing, Wenchun Ge, M. Santosh, Yu Dong, Hao Yang, Zheng Ji, Junhui Bi, Hongying Zhou, Dehe Xing
2022, 13(2): 101341. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101341
Melting of subducting oceanic lithosphere and associated melt-mantle interactions in convergent plate margins require specific geodynamic environment that allows the oceanic slab to be abnormally heated. Here we focus on the Early Mesozoic mafic rocks and granite porphyry, which provide insights into slab melting processes associated with final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The granite porphyry samples are calc-alkaline and distinguished by high Sr contents, strong depletion of heavy rare earth elements, resulting in high (La/Yb)N and Sr/Y ratios, and negligible Eu anomalies. Based on their high Na2O and MgO, low K2O contents, positive εHf(t) and εNd(t) and low (87Sr/86Sr) values, we propose that the granite porphyry was likely derived from partial melting of subducting Paleo-Asian oceanic crust. The Nb-enriched mafic rocks are enriched in Rb, Th, U, Pb and K, and depleted in Nb, Ta, Ba, P and Ti, corroborating a subduction-related origin. Their heterogeneous Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions and other geochemical features suggest that they were likely derived from partial melting of peridotitic mantle wedge interacted with oceanic slab-derived adakitic melts. Trace element and isotope modeling results and elevated zircon δ18O values suggest variable subducting sediments input into the mantle wedge, dominated by terrigenous sediments. Synthesizing the widely-developed bimodal rock associations, conjugated dikes, thermal metamorphism, tectonic characteristics, paleomagnetic constraints, and paleogeographical evidence along the Solonke-Changchun suture zone, we identify a slab window triggered by slab break-off, which accounts for slab melting and formation of the Nb-enriched mafic rocks and associated adakitic granite porphyry in southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt.
Partial dehydration of brucite and its implications for water distribution in the subducting oceanic slab
Xinzhuan Guo, Takashi Yoshino, Sibo Chen, Xiang Wu, Junfeng Zhang
2022, 13(2): 101342. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101342
Hydrous minerals within the subducting oceanic slab are important hosts for water. Clarification of the stability field of hydrous minerals helps to understand transport and distribution of water from the surface to the Earth’s interior. We investigated the stability of brucite, a prototype of hydrous minerals, by means of electrical conductivity measurements in both open and closed systems at 3 GPa and temperatures up to 1300 K. Dramatic increase of conductivity in association with characteristic impedance spectra suggests that partial dehydration of single-crystal brucite in the open system with a low water fugacity occurs at 950 K, which is about 300 K lower than those previously defined by phase equilibrium experiments in the closed system. By contrast, brucite completely dehydrates at 1300 K in the closed system, consistent with previous studies. Partial dehydration may generate a highly defective structure but does not lead to the breakdown of brucite to periclase and water immediately. Water activity plays a key role in the stability of hydrous minerals. Low water activity (aH2O) caused by the high wetting behavior of the subducted oceanic slab at the transition zone depth may cause the partial dehydration of the dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMSs), which significantly reduces the temperature stability of DHMS (this mechanism has been confirmed by previous study on super hydrous phase B). As a result, the transition zone may serve as a ‘dead zone’ for DHMSs, and most water will be stored in wadsleyite and ringwoodite in the transition zone.
A geomorphological model of susceptibility to the effect of human interventions for environmental licensing determination (SHIELD)
Cristina I. Pereira, Celene B. Milanes, Ivan Correa, Enzo Pranzini, Benjamin Cuker, Camilo M. Botero
2022, 13(2): 101343. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101343
Almost every country requires some form of environmental licensing prior to the inception of development projects that may affect the integrity of the environment and its social context. We developed a new conceptual and methodological model to instruct the assessment of the potential impacts posed by proposed projects. Susceptibility to Human Interventions for Environmental Licensing Determination (SHIELD) includes a novel geomorphological interpretation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). It considers the impact of human interventions on geomorphological processes and landscape functioning in the context of the entire ecosystem, going further than the classical concept of vulnerability. Estimated susceptibility of the site informs the screening stage, allowing local conditions to help define the criteria used in the process. Similarly, the level of detail of the environmental baseline is scoped by considering the degree of disturbance of natural processes posed by human intervention. Testing this geomorphological susceptibility model on different kinds of environments would allow shifting the environmental licensing practices from the prevailing anthropocentric and static conception of the environment towards an Ecosystem Approach. SHIELD addresses the need to improve the screening and scoping stages that form the basis of the rest of any EIA. SHIELD introduces several innovations to EIA including the incorporation of fuzzy logic, a preassembled database of contributions form experts, and a shifting of emphasis from the type of proposed intervention to the type of environment and its relative susceptibility.
Age and petrogenesis of late Mesozoic intrusions in the Huoluotai porphyry Cu-(Mo) deposit, northeast China: Implications for regional tectonic evolution
Yong-gang Sun, Bi-le Li, Zhong-hai Zhao, Feng-yue Sun, Qing-feng Ding, Xu-sheng Chen, Jie-biao Li, Ye Qian, Yu-jin Li
2022, 13(2): 101344. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101344
Multi-stage igneous rocks developed in the recently discovered Huoluotai Cu-(Mo) deposit provide new insights into the controversial late Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the northern segment of the Great Xing’an Range (NSGXR). Zircon U-Pb dating suggests that the monzogranite, ore-bearing granodiorite porphyry, diorite porphyry, and granite porphyry in the deposit were emplaced at 179.5 ± 1.6, 148.9 ± 0.9, 146.1 ± 1.3, and 142.2 ± 1.5 Ma, respectively. The Re-Os dating of molybdenite yielded an isochron age of 146.9 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.27). The Jurassic adakitic monzogranite and granodiorite porphyry are characterized by high SiO2 and Na2O contents, low K2O/Na2O ratios, low MgO, Cr, and Ni contents, low zircon εHf(t) values relative to depleted mantle, and relatively high Th contents. They were produced by partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab, with involvement of marine sediments in the magma source and limited interaction with mantle peridotites during magma ascent. The Late Jurassic diorite porphyry is characterized by moderate SiO2 contents, high MgO, Cr, and Ni contents, and positive dominated εHf(t) values, indicating it was produced by partial melting of a subduction-modified lithospheric mantle wedge and underwent limited crustal contamination during magma ascent. The early Early Cretaceous adakitic granite porphyry shows high SiO2 and K2O contents and K2O/Na2O ratios, low MgO, Cr, and Ni contents, enriched Sr–Nd isotopic compositions, and slightly positive zircon εHf(t) values, suggesting it was produced by partial melting of thickened mafic lower crust. The NSGXR experienced a tectonic history that involved flat-slab subduction (200–160 Ma), and tearing and collapse (150–145 Ma) of the Mongol–Okhotsk oceanic lithosphere. The period of magmatic quiescence from ca. 160 to 150 Ma was a response to flat-slab subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk oceanic lithosphere. Crustal thickening in the NSGXR (145–133 Ma) was due to the collision between the Amuria Block and the Siberian Craton.
Dissociation of gas hydrates by hydrocarbon migration and accumulation-derived slope failures: An example from the South China Sea
Zhi-Feng Wan, Wei Zhang, Chong Ma, Jin-Qiang Liang, Ang Li, Da-Jiang Meng, Wei Huang, Cheng-Zhi Yang, Jin-Feng Zhang, Yue-Feng Sun
2022, 13(2): 101345. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101345
The mechanism of slope failure associated with overpressure that is caused by hydrocarbon migration and accumulation remains unclear. High-resolution seismic data and gas hydrate drilling data collected from the Shenhu gas hydrate field (site SH5) offer a valuable opportunity to study the relations between submarine slope failure and hydrocarbon accumulation and flow that is associated with a ∼2 km-diameter gas chimney developed beneath site SH5 where none gas hydrates had been recovered by drilling and sampling despite the presence of distinct bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) and favorable gas hydrate indication. The mechanism of submarine slope failure resulted from buoyancy extrusion and seepage-derived deformation which were caused by overpressure from a ∼1100 m-high gas column in a gas chimney was studied via numerical simulation. The ∼9.55 MPa overpressure caused by hydrocarbons that migrated through the gas chimney and then accumulated beneath subsurface gas hydrate-bearing impermeable sediments. This may have resulted in a submarine slope failure, which disequilibrated the gas hydrate-bearing zone and completely decomposed the gas hydrate once precipitated at site SH5. Before the gas hydrate decomposition, the largely impermeable sediments overlying the gas chimney may have undergone a major upward deformation due to the buoyancy extrusion of the overpressure in the gas chimney, and slope failure was initiated from plastic strain of the sediments and reduced internal strength. Slope failure subsequently resulted in partial gas hydrate decomposition and sediment permeability increase. The pressurized gas in the gas chimney may have diffused into the overlying sediments controlled by seepage-derived deformation, causing an effective stress reduction at the base of the sediments and significant plastic deformation. This may have formed a new cycle of submarine slope failure and finally the total gas hydrate dissociation. The modeling results of buoyancy extrusion and seepage-derived deformation of the overpressure in the gas chimney would provide new understanding in the development of submarine slope failure and the link between slope failure and gas hydrate accumulation and dissociation.
Linking uplift and mineralisation at the Mount Novit Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit, Northern Australia: Evidence from geology, U–Pb geochronology and sphalerite geochemistry
Bradley Cave, William Perkins, Richard Lilly
2022, 13(2): 101347. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101347
The subeconomic Mount Novit Zn-Pb-Ag deposit is located approximately 20 km south of Mount Isa, Queensland. In contrast to the nearby Mount Isa, Hilton and George Fisher Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, mineralisation at Mount Novit is situated to the west of the regional-scale Mount Isa Fault and is hosted in the Moondarra Siltstone as opposed to the Urquhart Shale. Lower-grade (<4 wt.% Zn + Pb) Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation primarily replaces pre-existing carbonate alteration and veining and consists of pyrrhotite, pyrite and sphalerite with lesser galena. Higher-grade (>10 wt.% Zn + Pb) mineralisation occurs as a matrix supported breccia dominated by sphalerite and pyrrhotite with galena, pyrite, and magnetite. In-situ U–Pb geochronology was completed on apatite and two textural varieties of monazite. Fine-grained (<50 µm) subhedral to anhedral monazite is located within highly foliated biotite alteration directly adjacent Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation and yields a mean weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1527 ± 18 Ma (MSWD = 1.06). This age is consistent with the formation of highly foliated biotite alteration during D3 deformation of the Isan Orogeny. Apatite from the same fabric yields a lower intercept age of 1443 ± 29 Ma (MSWD = 1.30). Consistent with previous studies, this age is interpreted to represent the age of a major thrusting event along the Mount Isa Fault that resulted in the cooling of the Mount Novit area below ∼375 °C. Coarse-grained monazite is coeval with Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation and yields a mean weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1457 ± 11 Ma (MSWD = 0.28). Sphalerite from Mount Novit has low concentrations (<1 ppm) of Ge and Ga and a relatively high concentration of In (5 to >10 ppm), possibly reflecting the leaching of the metals from an underlying basement unit. The GGIMFis geothermometer (Frenzel et al., 2016) produced a mean formation temperature of 345 ± 52 °C. The timing and temperature of Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation is consistent with the age and cooling temperature of apatite presented in this study. Based on these correlations, we suggest that Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation at Mount Novit was emplaced during an episode of major thrusting along the Mount Isa Fault, with the precipitation of Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation driven by the cooling of the Mount Novit area below ∼375 °C. A key implication of this study is a new model for synorogenic Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation to the south of Mount Isa, which contrasts with the widely accepted regional-scale syngenetic metallogenic model.
Focus Paper
Metallogenic ‘factories’ and resultant highly anomalous mineral endowment on the craton margins of China
Li-Qiang Yang, Jun Deng, David I. Groves, M. Santosh, Wen-Yan He, Nan Li, Liang Zhang, Rui-Rui Zhang, Hong-Rui Zhang
2022, 13(2): 101339. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2021.101339
The current margins of the North China and Yangtze Cratons provide arguably the best examples globally of anomalously high mineral endowment within a 100 km buffer zone, hosting 66 diverse world-class to giant ore systems that help explain China’s premier position as a producer of multiple metal and mineral commodities. After the cratonization of these crustal blocks during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, with incorporation of iron ores on assembled micro-block margins, the margins of the cratons experienced multiple convergence and rifting events leading to metasomatism and fertilization of their underlying sub-continental lithospheric mantle. The rifted margins with trans-lithosphere faults provided pathways for Cu-Au (Mo-W-Sn)-bearing felsic to Ni-Cu-bearing ultrabasic intrusions and REE-rich carbonatite magmas, and for the development of marginal sedimentary basins with both Cu-Pb-Zn-rich source units and reactive carbonate or carbonaceous host rocks. There was diachronous formation of hydrothermal orogenic gold, antimony, and bismuth systems in the narrow orogenic belts between the cratons. Complexity in the Mesozoic Paleo-Pacific subduction systems resulted in asthenosphere upwelling and lithosphere extension and thinning in the North China Craton, leading to anomalous heat flow and formation of orogenic gold deposits, including those of the giant Jiaodong gold province on its north-eastern margin. These gold deposits, many of which formed from fluids liberated by devolatilization of previously metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle, helped propel China to be the premier gold producer globally. The thick sub-continental lithospheric mantle of the cold buoyant cratons helped the preservation of some of the world’s oldest porphyry-skarn and epithermal mineral systems. Although craton margins globally control the formation and preservation of a diverse range of mineral deposits, China represents the premier example in terms of metal endowment due to the anomalous length of its craton margins combined with their abnormally complex tectonic history.