Volume 13 Issue 5
Sep.  2022
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Shunbao Gao, Xin Chen, Youye Zheng, Nan Chao, Shunli Zheng, Hao Lin, Xiaojia Jiang, Song Wu. Discrepant chemical differentiation and magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of high-silica magmatism associated with Pb-Zn and W mineralization in the Lhasa terrane[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2022, 13(5): 101411. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101411
Citation: Shunbao Gao, Xin Chen, Youye Zheng, Nan Chao, Shunli Zheng, Hao Lin, Xiaojia Jiang, Song Wu. Discrepant chemical differentiation and magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of high-silica magmatism associated with Pb-Zn and W mineralization in the Lhasa terrane[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2022, 13(5): 101411. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101411

Discrepant chemical differentiation and magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of high-silica magmatism associated with Pb-Zn and W mineralization in the Lhasa terrane

doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101411

We are deeply grateful to the Editorial Advisor Prof. M. Santosh and Associate Editor Prof. S. Glorie for the constructive comments and suggestions. Reviews by two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the manuscript and are gratefully acknowledged. We thank the staff of State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan and Wuhan Sample Solution Analytical Technology Co for helping with bulk-rock major elementand trace element analyses, zircon U-Pb age and Hf determinations, and whole-rock major elements and rare earth elemental analyses. We acknowledge the Fundamental Research Funds for the National Foundation of China (42102058), open fund from the Key Laboratory of Deep-Earth Dynamics of Ministry of Natural Resource, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (No. J1901-16), Central Universities, and China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) (No. 2019132).

  • Received Date: 2022-01-03
  • Accepted Date: 2022-06-07
  • Rev Recd Date: 2022-05-08
  • Publish Date: 2022-06-09
  • High-silica (SiO2 > 70 wt.%) granites (HSGs) are the main source of W, Sn, and rare metals. However, abundant HSGs, temporally, spatially, and genetically associated with Pb-Zn mineralization, in the Lhasa terrane (LT), provided an ideal opportunity to study the key factors responsible for Pb-Zn enrichment, instead of W-Sn enrichment. Here we contribute to this topic through U-Pb dating of zircon and garnet, and whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic geochemistry of ore-related quartz porphyries in the Bangbule deposit and compared these results with published data from large and giant Pb-Zn and W deposits in the LT. The magmatism-alteration-mineralization event in the Bangbule deposit was recorded by robust zircon U-Pb ages of 77.3 ±0.9 Ma and hydrothermal garnet U-Pb ages of 75.7 ±4.8 Ma, which is 10-15 Ma earlier than the main Paleocene metallogenic event and the first record of late Cretaceous Pb-Zn polymetallic mineralization in the LT. The late Cretaceous-Paleocene magmatism and mineralization events are a response to the subduction of Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, which occurred as a result of the collision of the Indian and Asian plates. These HSGs related to Pb-Zn mineralization, with high total-alkalis and low magnesian contents, are enriched in Ba, Th, and Rb, but depleted in Ti, Eu, Sr, and P. They belong to either the S-type, or I-type granites. The Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the Pb-Zn mineralized granites demonstrate that they were generated by the partial melting of Proterozoic basement with or without mantle-derived melt input. This was consistent with the postulated source of W enrichment in the LT. The Pb-Zn and W related granites have similar zircon-Ti-saturation temperatures, comparable low whole-rock Fe2O3/FeO ratios, and zircon oxygen fugacity. This indicated that the Pb-Zn-W enrichment in the high-silica magma system could be attributed to a relatively reduced magma. The Pb-Zn related HSGs, abundant quartz and feldspar phenocrysts, and weak fractionation of twin-elements in whole-rock analysis, can be used to reconstruct a model of the magma reservoir. We postulate that these features could be reproduced by silica-rich crystal accumulation in a magma reservoir, with a loss of magmatic fluids. The magma associated with W mineralization exhibited a higher level of differentiation compared to the Pb-Zn related magma; however, different groups of zircon texture with varying rare earth elements and concomitance of rare earth elements tetrad effect and high fractionation of twin-elements in whole-rock are formed by a magmatic-hydrothermal transition in highly evolved system. As the source and oxygen fugacities of the Pb-Zn and W related magmas are similar, the absence of a giant W-Sn deposit in the LT may indicate that parent magmas with a low degree of evolution and magmatic-hydrothermal transition are not conducive to their formation. This implies that the rocks that originated as highly evolved silicate-rich parent magmas, with a high degree of magmatic-hydrothermal alteration, would need to be targeted for W-Sn mineral exploration in the LT. In summary, our results emphasize that variations in chemical differentiation and the evolution of high-silica magmatic-hydrothermal systems can lead to differences in Pb-Zn and W enrichment. This has implications for the evaluation of the mineral potential of high-silica granites and hence their attractiveness as targets for mineral exploration.
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