Volume 13 Issue 5
Sep.  2022
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J.L.R. Touret, M. Santosh, J.M. Huizenga. Composition and evolution of the continental crust: Retrospect and prospect[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2022, 13(5): 101428. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101428
Citation: J.L.R. Touret, M. Santosh, J.M. Huizenga. Composition and evolution of the continental crust: Retrospect and prospect[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2022, 13(5): 101428. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101428

Composition and evolution of the continental crust: Retrospect and prospect

doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101428

lie Dessens, Library Ecole des Mines- MINES Paris-Tech, for providing the photo in Fig. 1. We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, and we would like to thank the Associate Editor, Dr. Vinod Samuel and the editorial assistant, Dr. Lily Wang, for their kind help and support.

Thanks are due to Amé

  • Received Date: 2022-05-27
  • Accepted Date: 2022-06-29
  • Rev Recd Date: 2022-06-13
  • Publish Date: 2022-07-01
  • Until the middle of the 20th century, the continental crust was considered to be dominantly granitic. This hypothesis was revised after the Second World War when several new studies led to the realization that the continental crust is dominantly made of metamorphic rocks. Magmatic rocks were emplaced at peak metamorphic conditions in domains, which can be defined by geophysical discontinuities. Low to medium-grade metamorphic rocks constitute the upper crust, granitic migmatites and intrusive granites occur in the middle crust, and the lower crust, situated between the Conrad and Moho discontinuities, comprises charnockites and granulites. The continental crust acquired its final structure during metamorphic episodes associated with mantle upwelling, which mostly occurred in supercontinents prior to their disruption, during which the base of the crust experienced ultrahigh temperatures (>1000℃, ultrahigh temperature granulite-facies metamorphism). Heat is provided by underplating of mantle-derived mafic magmas, as well as by a massive influx of low H2O activity mantle fluids, i.e. high-density CO2 and high-salinity brines. These fluids are initially stored in ultrahigh temperature domains, and subsequently infiltrate the lower crust, where they generate anhydrous granulite mineral assemblages. The brines can reach upper crustal levels, possibly even the surface, along major shear zones, where granitoids are generated through brine streaming in addition to those formed by dehydration melting in upper crustal levels.
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