2023 Vol. 14, No. 2

Research Paper
Long-term performance evaluation of zero-valent iron amended permeable reactive barriers for groundwater remediation-A mechanistic approach
Michael Lawrinenko, Sudarshan Kurwadkar, Richard T. Wilkin
2023, 14(2): 101494. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101494
Abstract(184) HTML PDF(39)
Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are used for groundwater remediation at contaminated sites worldwide. This technology has been efficient at appropriate sites for treating organic and inorganic contaminants using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reductant and as a reactive material. Continued development of the technology over the years suggests that a robust understanding of PRB performance and the mechanisms involved is still lacking. Conflicting information in the scientific literature downplays the critical role of ZVI corrosion in the remediation of various organic and inorganic pollutants. Additionally, there is a lack of information on how different mechanisms act in tandem to affect ZVI-groundwater systems through time. In this review paper, we describe the underlying mechanisms of PRB performance and remove isolated misconceptions. We discuss the primary mechanisms of ZVI transformation and aging in PRBs and the role of iron corrosion products. We review numerous sites to reinforce our understanding of the interactions between groundwater contaminants and ZVI and the authigenic minerals that form within PRBs. Our findings show that ZVI corrosion products and mineral precipitates play critical roles in the long-term performance of PRBs by influencing the reactivity of ZVI. Pore occlusion by mineral precipitates occurs at the influent side of PRBs and is enhanced by dissolved oxygen and groundwater rich in dissolved solids and high alkalinity, which negatively impacts hydraulic conductivity, allowing contaminants to potentially bypass the treatment zone. Further development of site characterization tools and models is needed to support effective PRB designs for groundwater remediation.
Deformation induced decoupling between U-Pb and trace elements in titanite revealed through petrochronology and study of localized deformation
Charles Kavanagh-Lepage, Félix Gervais, Kyle Larson, Riccardo Graziani, Abdelali Moukhsil
2023, 14(2): 101496. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101496
Abstract(141) HTML PDF(39)
In this contribution, we analyzed a pair of mafic samples collected from a recently identified shear zone and its proximal footwall from the Manicouagan Imbricate Zone (MIZ) of the central Grenville Province, Québec, Canada. Titanite petrochronology, metamorphic phase equilibria modelling, trace element thermometry, and electron backscattered diffraction data were used to define a Pressure-Temperature-time-Deformation path for the two samples. An interconnected dislocation network within titanite grains, as outlined with Kerneled Average Misorientation maps, are spatially correlated with variation in the U-Pb system but not with that observed for trace element These results suggest that the U-Pb system was decoupled from trace and rare earth elements and that deformation, rather than interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reactions or re-crystallisation, was the main driver for this decoupling. In addition to highlighting a potential pitfall of titanite petrochronology, our P-T-t-D path reveals that ductile shear zones were active later than previously suggested within the MIZ.
An integrated analysis of air pollution from US coal-fired power plants
Mikalai Filonchyk, Michael P. Peterson
2023, 14(2): 101498. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101498
Abstract(106) HTML PDF(12)
The United States is one of the world's leaders in electricity production, generating about 4116 billion kWh in 2021, of which coal accounted for 21.8% of the total. This study applies an integrated approach using both terrestrial and satellite data to specifically examine emissions from coal-fired power plants and its spatial extent. The study also highlights the effectiveness of government policies to reduce emissions. It was found that emission of pollutants from the country's energy sector has been steadily declining, with annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) decreasing from the US electric power sector between 1990 and 2020 by 93.4% and 84.8%, respectively, and carbon dioxide (CO2) by 37% between 2007 and 2020. Although overall emissions from coal-fired power plants are declining, some individual plants have yet to install environmental equipment to control emissions. According to US government data, major emitters of SO2, NOx, and CO2 in the US are the Martin Lake power plant in East Texas, the Labadie power plant near St. Louis, Missouri, and the James H Miller Jr plant near Birmingham, Alabama. This study also integrates TROPOMI satellite data to detect point emissions from individual power plants. While the highest levels of measured pollutants were over the country's major cities and areas of fossil fuel extraction, TROPOMI could clearly distinguish the pollution caused by power plants in more rural areas. Although the US has made great strides in reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants, these plants still represent a major source of pollution and remain a major concern. Totally eliminating coal as a power source will be difficult with the higher power demands resulting from the transition to electric automobiles.
Joint estimation of PM2.5 and O3 over China using a knowledge-informed neural network
Tongwen Li, Qianqian Yang, Yuan Wang, Jingan Wu
2023, 14(2): 101499. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101499
Abstract(124) HTML PDF(5)
China has currently entered a critical stage of coordinated control of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), it is thus of tremendous value to accurately acquire high-resolution PM2.5 and O3 data. In contrast to traditional studies that usually separately estimate PM2.5 and O3, this study proposes a knowledge-informed neural network model for their joint estimation, in which satellite observations, reanalysis data, and ground station measurements are used. The neural network architecture is designed with the shared and specific inputs, the PM2.5-O3 interaction module, and the weighted loss function, which introduce the prior knowledge of PM2.5 and O3 into neural network modeling. Cross-validation (CV) results indicate that the inclusion of prior knowledge can improve the estimation accuracy, with R2 increasing from 0.872 to 0.911 and from 0.906 to 0.937 for PM2.5 and O3 estimation under sample-based CV, respectively. In addition, the proposed joint estimation model achieves comparable performance with the separate estimation model, but with higher efficiency. Mapping results of PM2.5 and O3 derived by the proposed model have demonstrated interesting findings in the spatial and temporal trends and variations over China.
Newly discovered youngest UHT metamorphism on Earth, Western Sulawesi, Indonesia
Juiyen Hsia, Jian Zhang, Guochun Zhao, Jiahui Qian, Jin Liu, Min Sun, Changqing Yin, Peng Gao, Welson Weisheng Xian, Minjie Guo
2023, 14(2): 101500. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101500
Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism represents an extreme crustal thermal event with peak conditions exceeding 900 °C at 7-13 kbar. In the modern-style plate tectonic system, records of the UHT metamorphism are relatively rare due to the secular cooling of Earth. In the Palu region of Western Sulawesi, we newly discovered a series of HT-UHT metamorphic rocks including amphibolite, granulite, eclogites and gneiss. Of them, two granulite samples (18CS14-2, 18CS14-4) with high garnet content (>50 mol%) are chosen for petrographic observation, phase equilibrium modelling, and zircon U-Pb dating. These rocks are characterized by a relic M1 assemblage of Grt + Ky + Bt + Rt and a M2 assemblage of Grt + Sil + Pl + Spl + Crd ± Qtz + Ilm + melt. Phase equilibrium modelling based on effective bulk compositions yields UHT conditions of 7.2-8.5 kbar/940-1080 °C (18CS14-2) and 7.0-7.3 kbar/1000-1040 °C (18CS14-4). U-Pb analysis reveals two generations of metamorphic zircon with evolving REE content that is intimately related to garnet growth and decomposition. Zircon age of 36-5.3 Ma is ascribed to syn- to post-M1 metamorphism, whereas the young zircon age of 5.1-3.8 Ma is linked to syn- and post-M2 stage. The UHT metamorphism was probably the consequence of the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle triggered by post-collisional delamination of lithosphere in the Miocene-Pliocene (ca. 5 Ma). It could represent the youngest known UHT metamorphism on Earth.
Influencing factors and significance of organic and inorganic nitrogen isotopic compositions in lacustrine sedimentary rocks
Juan Chen, Jianfa Chen, Lipeng Yao, Qingyong Luo, Shengbao Shi, Jianping Chen, Lei Zhu, Zeya Chen
2023, 14(2): 101501. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101501
Comprehensive nitrogen biogeochemical cycle has been reconstructed for representative lacustrine organic-rich sedimentary rock in China, namely the Triassic Yanchang Formation (YF, 199-230 Ma) in Ordos and the Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (QF, 86-92 Ma) in Songliao basins, by evaluating the organic and inorganic nitrogen isotopic compositions rather than only organic or bulk nitrogen isotopic compositions. The results indicate that the nitrogen isotope values of bulk rock (δ15Nbulk) in the non-metamorphic stage are significantly different from that of kerogen, which challenge the conceptual framework of sedimentary nitrogen isotope interpretation. The δ15Nbulk from the YF and QF were lower than their respective the nitrogen isotope values of kerogen (δ15Nker), with offsets up to ~5.1‰, which have the inverse relationship for the metamorphosed rock. Thermal evolution did not significantly modify the δ15N of bulk rock and kerogen. The δ15N of sediments from the YF (δ15Nbulk, 1.6‰-5.6‰) were lower than that of rock from the QF (δ15Nbulk, 10.2‰-15.3‰). The nitrogen isotope values of silicate incorporated nitrogen (δ15Nsil) were slightly lower than those of the δ15Nker in the YF and obviously lower for the QF. The fact that different nitrogen cycles occur in the YF and QF due to the different depositional redox conditions leads to different isotopic results. The YF water environment dominated by oxic conditions is not conducive to the occurrence of denitrification and anammox, and no abundant N2 loss leads to the relatively light δ15Nbulk. In the stratified water for the QF, redox transition zone promotes denitrification and anammox, resulting in the heavy δ15Nbulk of rock and promotes the DNRA, resulting in heavy δ15Nker and low δ15Nsil.
Sticking together: Mechanisms of quartz synneusis in high-silica magma Brendan Dyck
Brendan Dyck
2023, 14(2): 101512. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101512
The formation of crystal clusters by synneusis (magmatic sintering) affects a wide range of magmatic systems from olivine clusters in komatiite to quartz clusters in high-silica granite. A common feature of synneusis in any mineral phase is the alignment of neighbouring crystals in certain lower-energy orientation relationships. However, the underlying mechanisms involved with both the alignment of crystals in lower-energy orientations and the binding of crystal clusters are not well understood. In the absence of mechanisms that bind crystals together upon contact, the same hydrodynamic forces that may bring crystals together can in theory also serve to disaggregate clusters. Here I use cathodoluminescence imaging and crystal orientation data from quartz clusters in high-silica granite to show that i) rapid crystalline neck growth along attachment surfaces and ii) grain rotation are two mechanisms that reduce the grain boundary energy of crystal clusters while increasing clusters’ shear strength. The continued crystallization of sintered phases as the magmatic body cools further cements crystal pairs and resists cluster disaggregation. Together these mechanisms underpin both the formation and preservation of large crystal clusters in dynamic magmatic environments.
Characterisation of likelihood of gas hydrates occurrence in the South China Sea based on Bonferroni mean-based TOPSIS and fuzzy set theory
Pierre Guy Atangana Njock, Shui-Long Shen, Annan Zhou
2023, 14(2): 101513. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101513
The efficiency of gas hydrate production depends on the success of gas exploration and occurrence evaluation. The existing evaluation models are generally univariate and only applicable to certain geological settings. This study presents a holistic approach to evaluate the likelihood of gas hydrate occurrence by supplying an index for mapping gas hydrate levels with depth. The approach integrates a generalised TOPSIS method with the fuzzy set theory. An expedition of gas hydrate conducted in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea was adopted as a case study to assess the reliability of the proposed index. As a multivariate model, the proposed approach enables the capture of non-linearity associated with gas hydrates in its entirety. The magnitude of the strength of the influential factor varies substantially from one site to another across the Shenhu area. The results also show that no site achieves the highest likelihood ‘Level V’. These results are consistent with the gas saturation values obtained using Archie’s relationship. For example, at SH4 and SH7, the values of the likelihood index are the highest between 170-185 m and 150-165 m, respectively, and the observed saturation at these locations varies from 20% (SH4) to 43% (SH7). The proposed likelihood index yields a prominent ability to quantify the level of occurrence of gas hydrates with depth at different sites. It appears to be an efficient multicriteria system bound to improve the management of the gas production trial stage.
Generating soil thickness maps by means of geomorphological-empirical approach and random forest algorithm in Wanzhou County, Three Gorges Reservoir
Ting Xiao, Samuele Segoni, Xin Liang, Kunlong Yin, Nicola Casagli
2023, 14(2): 101514. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101514
Soil thickness, intended as depth to bedrock, is a key input parameter for many environmental models. Nevertheless, it is often difficult to obtain a reliable spatially exhaustive soil thickness map in wide-area applications, and existing prediction models have been extensively applied only to test sites with shallow soil depths. This study addresses this limitation by showing the results of an application to a section of Wanzhou County (Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China), where soil thickness varies from 0 to ~40 m. Two different approaches were used to derive soil thickness maps: a modified version of the geomorphologically indexed soil thickness (GIST) model, purposely customized to better account for the peculiar setting of the test site, and a regression performed with a machine learning algorithm, i.e., the random forest, combined with the geomorphological parameters of GIST (GIST-RF). Additionally, the errors of the two models were quantified, and validation with geophysical data was carried out. The results showed that the GIST model could not fully contend with the high spatial variability of soil thickness in the study area: the mean absolute error was 10.68 m with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 12.61 m, and the frequency distribution residuals showed a tendency toward underestimation. In contrast, GIST-RF returned a better performance with the mean absolute error of 3.52 m and RMSE of 4.56 m. The derived soil thickness map could be considered a critical fundamental input parameter for further analyses.
Unravelling the protracted U-Pb zircon geochronological record of high to ultrahigh temperature metamorphic rocks: Implications for provenance investigations
Mahyra Tedeschi, Pedro Leonardo Rossi Vieira, Matheus Kuchenbecker, Bruno V. Ribeiro, Vitor Barrote, Humberto Reis, Laura Stutenbecker, Cristiano Lana, Antonio Pedrosa-Soares, Ivo Dussin
2023, 14(2): 101515. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101515
The assessment of detrital zircon age records is a key method in basin analysis, but it is prone to several biases that may compromise accurate sedimentary provenance investigations. High to ultrahigh temperature (HT-UHT) metamorphism (especially if T > 850 °C) is herein presented as a natural cause of bias in provenance studies based on U-Pb detrital zircon ages, since zircon from rocks submitted to these extreme and often prolonged conditions frequently yield protracted, apparently concordant, geochronological records. Such age spreading can result from disturbance of the primary U-Pb zircon system, likewise from (re)crystallization processes during multiple and/or prolonged metamorphic events. In this contribution, available geochronological data on Archean, Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic HT-UHT metamorphic rocks, acquired by different techniques (SIMS and LA-ICP-MS) and showing distinct compositions, are reassessed to demonstrate HT-UHT metamorphism may result in modes and age distributions of unclear geological meaning. As a consequence, it may induce misinterpretations on U-Pb detrital zircon provenance analyses, particularly in sedimentary rocks metamorphosed under such extreme temperature conditions. To evaluate the presence of HT-UHT metamorphism-related bias in the detrital zircon record, we suggest a workflow for data acquisition and interpretation, combining a multi-proxy approach with: (i) in situ U-Pb dating coupled with Hf analyses to retrieve the isotopic composition of the sources, and (ii) the integration of a petrochronological investigation to typify fingerprints of the HT-UHT metamorphic event. The proposed workflow is validated in the investigation of one theoretical and one natural example allowing a better characterization of the sedimentary sources, maximum depositional ages, and the tectonic setting of the basin. Our workflow allows to the appraisal of biases imposed by HT-UHT metamorphism and resulting disturbances in the U-Pb detrital zircon record, particularly for sedimentary rocks that underwent HT-UHT metamorphism and, finally, suggests ways to overcome these issues.
Carbonaceous aerosol transport from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Himalayas: Carbon isotope evidence and light absorption characteristics
Pengfei Chen, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Zhaofu Hu, Lekhendra Tripathee, Mukesh Rai, Tao Pu, Xiufeng Yin, Örjan Gustafsson
2023, 14(2): 101516. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101516
The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is a major regional and global emitter of atmospheric pollutants, which adversely affect surrounding areas such as the Himalayas. We present a comprehensive dataset on carbonaceous aerosol (CA) composition, radiocarbon (Δ14C) -based source apportionment, and light absorption of total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected over a 3-year period from high-altitude Jomsom in the central Himalayas. The 3-year mean TSP, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were 92.0 ± 28.6, 9.74 ± 6.31, and 2.02 ± 1.35 μg m−3, respectively, with the highest concentrations observed during the pre-monsoon season, followed by the post-monsoon, winter, and monsoon seasons. The Δ14C analysis revealed that the contribution of fossil fuel combustion (ffossil) to EC was 47.9% ± 11.5%, which is consistent with observations in urban and remote regions in South Asia and attests that EC likely arrives in Jomsom from upwind IGP sources via long-range transport. In addition, the lowest ffossil (38.7% ± 13.3%) was observed in winter, indicating large contributions in this season from local biomass burning. The mass absorption cross-section of EC (MACEC: 8.27 ± 1.76 m2/g) and water-soluble organic carbon (MACWSOC: 0.98 ± 0.45 m2/g) were slightly higher and lower than those reported in urban regions, respectively, indicating that CA undergo an aging process. Organic aerosol coating during transport and variation of biomass burning probably led to the seasonal variation in MAC of two components. Overall, WSOC contributed considerably to the light absorption (11.1% ± 4.23%) of EC. The findings suggest that to protect glaciers of the Himalayas from pollution-related melting, it is essential to mitigate emissions from the IGP.
Trace element and Nd isotope analyses of apatite in granitoids and metamorphosed granitoids from the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications for petrogenesis and post-magmatic alteration
Xin-Yu Long, Jie Tang, Wen-Liang Xu, Chen-Yang Sun, Jin-Peng Luan, Shuai Xiong, Xiao-Ming Zhang
2023, 14(2): 101517. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101517
Abstract(63) HTML PDF(11)
We present in situ trace element and Nd isotopic data of apatites from metamorphosed and metasomatized (i.e., altered) and unaltered granitoids in the Songnen and Jiamusi massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, with the aim of fingerprinting granitoid petrogenesis, including both the magmatic and post-magmatic evolution processes. Apatites from altered granitoids (AG) and unaltered granitoids (UG) are characterized by distinct textures and geochemical compositions. Apatites from AG have irregular rim overgrowths and complex internal textures, along with low contents of rare earth elements (REEs), suggesting the re-precipitation of apatite during epidote crystallization and/or leaching of REEs from apatite by metasomatic fluids. εNd(t) values of the these apatites are decoupled from zircon εHf(t) values for most samples, which can be attributed to the higher mobility of Nd as compared to Sm in certain fluids. Apatites from UG are of igneous origin based on their homogeneous or concentric zoned textures and coupled Nd-Hf isotopic compositions. Trace element variations in igneous apatite are controlled primarily by the geochemical composition of the parental melt, fractional crystallization of other REE-bearing minerals, and changes in partition coefficients. Sr contents and Eu/Eu* values of apatites from UG correlate with whole-rock Sr and SiO2 contents, highlighting the effects of plagioclase fractionation during magma evolution. Apatites from UG can be subdivided into four groups based on REE contents. Group 1 apatites have REE patterns similar to the host granitoids, but are slightly enriched in middle REEs, reflecting the influence of the parental melt composition and REE partitioning. Group 2 apatites exhibit strong light REE depletions, whereas Group 3 apatites are depleted in middle and heavy REEs, indicative of the crystallization of epidote-group minerals and hornblende before and/or during apatite crystallization, respectively. Group 4 apatites are depleted in heavy REEs, but enriched in Sr, which are features of adakites. Some unusual geochemical features of the apatites, including the REE patterns, Sr contents, Eu anomalies, and Nd isotopic compositions, indicate that inherited apatites are likely to retain the geochemical features of their parental magmas, and thus provide a record of small-scale crustal assimilation during magma evolution that is not evident from the whole-rock geochemistry.
The Holocene environmental changes revealed from the sediments of the Yarkov sub-basin of Lake Chany, south-western Siberia
S. K. Krivonogov, A. N. Zhdanova, P. A. Solotchin, A. Y. Kazansky, V. V. Chegis, Z. Liu, M. Song, S. V. Zhilich, N. A. Rudaya, X. Cao, O. V. Palagushkina, L. B. Nazarova, L. S. Syrykh
2023, 14(2): 101518. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101518
Lake Chany is the largest endorheic lake in Siberia whose catchment is entirely on the territory of Russia. Its geographical location on the climate-sensitive boundary of wet and dry landscapes provides an opportunity to gain more knowledge about environmental changes in the West Siberian interior during the Holocene and about the evolution of the lake itself. Sediment cores obtained from the Yarkov sub-basin of the lake in 2008 have been comprehensively studied by a number of approaches including sedimentology and AMS dating, pollen, diatom and chironomid analyses (with statistical interpretation of the results), mineralogy of authigenic minerals and geochemistry of plant lipids (biomarker analysis.). Synthesis of new results presented here and published data provides a good justification for our hypothesis that Lake Chany is very young, no older than 3.6 ka BP. Before that, between 9 and 3.6 ka BP, the Chany basin was a swampy landscape with a very low sedimentation rate; it could not be identified as a water body. In the early lake phase, between 3.6 and 1.5 ka BP, the lake was shallow, 1.2-3.5 m in depth, and it rose to its modern size, up to 6.5 m in depth, during the last millennium. Our data reveal important changes in the understanding of the history of this large endorheic lake, as before it was envisioned as a large lake with significant changes in water level since ca. 14 ka BP. In addition to hydrology, our proxies provide updates and details of the regional vegetation and climate change since ca. 4 ka BP in the West-Siberian forest-steppe and steppe. As evolution of the Chany basin is dependent on hydroclimatic changes in a large region of southern West Siberia, we compare lake-level change and climate-change proxies from the other recently and most comprehensively studied lakes of the region.
Geological information prediction for shield machine using an enhanced multi-head self-attention convolution neural network with two-stage feature extraction
Chengjin Qin, Guoqiang Huang, Honggan Yu, Ruihong Wu, Jianfeng Tao, Chengliang Liu
2023, 14(2): 101519. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101519
Due to the closed working environment of shield machines, the construction personnel cannot observe the construction geological environment, which seriously restricts the safety and efficiency of the tunneling process. In this study, we present an enhanced multi-head self-attention convolution neural network (EMSACNN) with two-stage feature extraction for geological condition prediction of shield machine. Firstly, we select 30 important parameters according to statistical analysis method and the working principle of the shield machine. Then, we delete the non-working sample data, and combine 10 consecutive data as the input of the model. Thereafter, to deeply mine and extract essential and relevant features, we build a novel model combined with the particularity of the geological type recognition task, in which an enhanced multi-head self-attention block is utilized as the first feature extractor to fully extract the correlation of geological information of adjacent working face of tunnel, and two-dimensional CNN (2dCNN) is utilized as the second feature extractor. The performance and superiority of proposed EMSACNN are verified by the actual data collected by the shield machine used in the construction of a double-track tunnel in Guangzhou, China. The results show that EMSACNN achieves at least 96% accuracy on the test sets of the two tunnels, and all the evaluation indicators of EMSACNN are much better than those of classical AI model and the model that use only the second-stage feature extractor. Therefore, the proposed EMSACNN achieves high accuracy and strong generalization for geological information prediction of shield machine, which is of great guiding significance to engineering practice.
Anticlockwise metamorphic paths at ca. 890-790 Ma from the NE Baidrag block, Mongolia, indicate back-arc compression at the Rodinia periphery
Pavla Štípská, Vít Peřestý, Igor Soejono, Karel Schulmann, R. C. Andrew Kylander-Clark, Carmen Aguilar, Stephen Collett, Martin Racek, Jitka Míková, Otgonbaatar Dorjsuren, Nikol Novotná
2023, 14(2): 101520. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101520
The processes leading to the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent through Grenvillian collisional orogeny are relatively well known. In contrast, accretionary orogenic processes occurring at the supercontinent periphery following Rodinia assembly are poorly understood. To fill this gap, we have identified metamorphic rocks in the Mongolia collage of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, where numerous data testify for Meso- to Neoproterozoic magmatic reworking. The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the peri-Siberian tract of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is mainly characterized by the late Proterozoic-early Cambrian (Baikalian) cycle. However, we document here a Tonian age metamorphism at the northern part of the Precambrian Baidrag block, previously considered as a typical example of the Baikalian metamorphic belt. This study incorporates zircon and in-situ monazite geochronology linked to P-T modelling of Grt-Sil-Ky migmatite gneiss and Grt-St micaschist. Grt-Sil-Ky gneiss records initial burial to the sillimanite stability field at ~720 °C and 6.0 kbar followed by further burial to the kyanite stability field at ~750 °C and ~9 kbar and decompression to ~650 °C and ~8 kbar. The Grt-St schist records initial burial to the staurolite stability field at ~620 °C and 6 kbar, followed by further burial to ~590 °C and 8.5 kbar. The monazite data yield a continuum of 207Pb-corrected 238U/206Pb dates of ca. 926-768 Ma in the Grt-Sil-Ky gneiss, and ca. 937-754 Ma in the Grt-St schist. Based on monazite textural positon, internal zoning, and REE patterns, the time of prograde burial to 6.0 kbar under a thermal gradient of 27-32 °C/km is estimated at ca. 890-853 Ma. It is not clear whether such high-grade conditions prevailed until a phase of further burial under a geothermal gradient of 18-22 °C/km dated at ca. 835-815 Ma. The late monazite recrystallization at ca. 790 Ma is related to decompression. Additionally, monazite with dates of ca. 568-515 Ma occur as whole grains or as rims with sharp boundaries on Tonian monazite in Grt-St schist suggesting a minor Baikalian overprint. Metamorphic zircon rims with Th/U ratios of ~ 0.01-0.06 in Grt-Sil-Ky gneiss with 877 ± 7 Ma age, together with lower intercepts of detrital zircon discordia lines in both Grt-Sil-Ky gneiss and Grt-St schist further support the Tonian age of high-grade metamorphism. The anticlockwise P-T evolution is interpreted as a result of thickening of a supra-subduction extensional and hot edifice-probably of back-arc or arc type. This kind of prograde metamorphism has so far only been described on the northern part of the Tarim block and was interpreted to be a result of initiation of peri-Rodinian subduction of the Mirovoi Ocean. The geodynamic consequences of a unique discovery of Tonian metamorphism are discussed in terms of tectonic switch related to initiation of peri-Rodinian oceanic subduction during supercontinent assembly, followed by strong mechanical coupling potentially related to onset of Rodinia dispersal.
Construction of a fluvial facies knowledge graph and its application in sedimentary facies identification
Lei Zhang, Mingcai Hou, Anqing Chen, Hanting Zhong, James G. Ogg, Dongyu Zheng
2023, 14(2): 101521. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101521
Lithofacies paleogeography is a data-intensive discipline that involves the interpretation and compilation of sedimentary facies. Traditional sedimentary facies analysis is a labor-intensive task with the added complexity of using unstructured knowledge and unstandardized terminology. Therefore, it is very difficult for beginners or non-geology scholars who lack a systematic knowledge and experience in sedimentary facies analysis. These hurdles could be partly alleviated by having a standardized, structured, and systematic knowledge base coupled with an efficient automatic machine-assisted sedimentary facies identification system. To this end, this study constructed a knowledge system for fluvial facies and carried out knowledge representation. Components include a domain knowledge graph for types of fluvial facies (meandering, braided and other fluvial depositional environments) and their characteristic features (bedforms, grain size distribution, etc.) with visualization, a method for query and retrieval on a graph database platform, a hierarchical knowledge tree-structure, a data-mining clustering algorithm for machine-analysis of publication texts, and an algorithm model for this area of sedimentary facies reasoning. The underlying sedimentary facies identification and knowledge reasoning system is based on expert experience and synthesis of publications. For testing, 17 sets literature publications data that included details of sedimentary facies data (bedforms, grain sizes, etc.) were submitted to the artificial intelligence model, then compared and validated. This testing set of automated reasoning results yielded an interpretation accuracy of about 90% relative to the published interpretations in those papers. Therefore, the model and algorithm provide an efficient and automated reasoning technology, which provides a new approach and route for the rapid and intelligent identification of other types of sedimentary facies from literature data or direct use in the field.
Deformation history and processes during accretion of seamounts in subduction zones: The example of the Durkan Complex (Makran, SE Iran)
Edoardo Barbero, Maria Di Rosa, Luca Pandolfi, Morteza Delavari, Asghar Dolati, Federica Zaccarini, Emilio Saccani, Michele Marroni
2023, 14(2): 101522. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101522
The Durkan Complex is a tectonic element of the Makran Accretionary Prism (SE Iran) that includes fragments of Late Cretaceous seamounts. In this paper, the results of map- to micro-scale structural studies of the western Durkan Complex are presented with the aim to describe its structural and tectono-metamorphic evolution. The Durkan Complex consists of several tectonic units bordered by mainly NNW-striking thrusts. Three main deformation phases (D1, D2, and D3) are distinguished and likely occurred from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene-Pliocene. D1 is characterized by sub-isoclinal to close and W-verging folds associated with an axial plane foliation and shear zone along the fold limbs. This phase records the accretion of fragments of the seamount within the Makran at blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (160-300 °C and 0.6-1.2 GPa). D2 is characterized by open to close folds with sub-horizontal axial plane that likely developed during the exhumation of previously accreted seamount fragments. An upper Paleocene-Eocene siliciclastic succession unconformably sealed the D1 and D2 structures and is, in turn, deformed by W-verging thrust faults typical of D3. The latter likely testifies for a Miocene-Pliocene tectonic reworking of the accreted seamount fragments with the activation of out of sequence thrusts. Our results shed light on the mechanism of accretion of seamount materials in the accretionary prisms, suggesting that seamount slope successions favour the localization and propagation of the basal décollement. This study further confirms that the physiography of the subducting plates plays a significant role in the tectonic evolution of the subduction complexes.
Strategies towards robust interpretations of in situ zircon oxygen isotopes
Janne Liebmann, Christopher L. Kirkland, John B. Cliff, Christopher J. Spencer, Aaron J. Cavosie
2023, 14(2): 101523. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101523
Oxygen isotopes are a versatile tool to address a wide range of questions in the Earth sciences. Applications include geothermometry, paleoclimatology, tracing of geochemical reservoirs, fluid-rock interaction, magmatic petrogenesis, and identification of extra-terrestrial materials. Zircon arguably provides one of the most robust records of primary magmatic O isotope ratio due to low diffusion rates in crystalline grains. The ability to correlate zircon O isotopes with temporal and petrogenetic information (e.g. U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes, and trace elements) makes this mineral a key archive for understanding Earth’s crustal evolution. Consequently, zircon O isotope geochemistry has found widespread usage to address fundamental questions across the earth and planetary sciences. The general apparent ease of O isotopic acquisition through the advancement of rapid in situ techniques (i.e. secondary ion mass spectrometry; SIMS) and associated dedicated national laboratories has led to the generation of large O isotopic data sets of variable quality, highlighting the importance of a coherent workflow for data collection, reduction, and presentation. This paper presents a set of approaches for measurement, assessment, and reporting of zircon O isotope data. The focus in this contribution is on in situ analysis via secondary ion mass spectrometry using large geometry instruments, but other commonly used techniques are briefly reviewed for context. This work aims to provide an analytical framework necessary for geologically meaningful interpretation of O isotope data. In addition, we describe inherent geological (e.g. radiation-induced disturbance of the zircon O isotopic system) and analytical (e.g. fractionation due to sample topography effects) challenges and outline means to identify and avoid such issues as a prerequisite to the generation of robust primary O isotopic signatures for geological interpretation.
Surface water and aerosol spatiotemporal dynamics and influence mechanisms over drylands
Xiangyue Chen, Hongchao Zuo, Wenpeng Wang, Jikai Duan, Mingheng Chang, Jingzhe Wang
2023, 14(2): 101524. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101524
Under the background of global warming and excessive human activities, much surface water in drylands is experiencing rapid degradation or shrinkage in recent years. The shrinkage of surface water, especially the degradation of lakes and their adjacent wetlands in drylands, may lead to the emergence of new salt dust storm hotspots, which causes greater danger. In this paper, based on high spatial resolution global surface water (GSW) and multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) AOD data, we systematically analyze the dynamic characteristics of surface water and aerosols in typical drylands (Central Asia, CA) between 2000 and 2018. Simultaneously, combined with auxiliary environment variables, we explore the driving mechanisms of surface water on the regional salt/sand aerosols on different spatial scales. The results show that the seasonal surface water features an increasing trend, especially a more dramatic increase after 2015, and the permanent surface water indicates an overall decrease, with nearly 54.367 % at risk of receding and drying up. In typical lakes (Aral Sea and Ebinur Lake), the interannual change feature of the surface water area (WA) is that a continuous decrease during the study period occurs in Aral Sea area, yet a significant improvement has occurred in Ebinur Lake after 2015, and the degradation of Ebinur Lake takes place later and its recovery earlier than Aral Sea. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) in CA shows obvious seasonal variation, with the largest in spring (0.192 ± 0173), next in summer (0.169 ± 0.106), and the smallest in autumn (0.123 ± 0.065). The interannual variation of AOD exhibits an increase from 2000 to 2018 in CA, with high AOD areas mainly concentrated in the Taklamakan Desert and some lake beds resulting from lake degradation, including Aral Sea and Ebinur Lake. The AOD holds a similar trend between Aral Sea and Ebinur Lake on an interannual scale. And the AOD over Ebinur Lake is lower than that over Aral Sea in magnitude and lags behind in reaching the peak compared with Aral Sea. The WA change can significantly affect aerosol variation directly or indirectly on the aerosol load or mode size, but there are obvious differences in the driving mechanisms, acting paths, and influence magnitude of WA on aerosols on different spatial scales. In addition, the increase of WA can significantly directly suppress the increase of Ångström exponent (AE), and the effects of WA on AOD are realized majorly by an indirect approach. From the typical lake perspective, the effects of WA on aerosol in Aral Sea are achieved via an indirect path; and the decrease of WA can indirectly promote the AOD rise, and directly stimulate the AE growth in Ebinur Lake.
Holocene initiation and expansion of the southern margins of northern peatlands triggered by the East Asian summer monsoon recession
Mingming Zhang, John P. Smol, Zhaojun Bu
2023, 14(2): 101526. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101526
Northern peatlands represent one of the largest biospheric carbon reservoirs in the world. Their southern margins act as new carbon reservoirs, which can greatly influence the global carbon dynamics. However, the Holocene initiation, expansion and climate sensitivity of these peatlands remain intensely debated. Here we used a compilation of basal peat ages across six isolated peatlands at the southern margins of northern peatlands to address these issues. We found that the earliest initiation event of these peatlands occurred after the Younger Dryas (YD, 12,800-11,700 years ago) period. The second initiation event and rapid expansion occurred since 5 ka cal. BP. The recession of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) during the YD period and at around 5 ka cal. BP likely played a major role in controlling the initiation and expansion of these peatlands. The rapid expansion of these peatlands possibly contributed to the significant increases in atmospheric methane concentrations during the late Holocene because of the minerotrophic fens status and rapid expansion of them. These ecological processes are different from northern peatlands, indicating the special carbon sink and source implications of these peatlands in the global carbon cycle.